Volume 8, Issue 14                                                                                                    June 23, 2000

Vegetables

 

Vegetable Insects -  Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;  jwhalen@udel.edu

 

“Potato Leafhopper Alert” 

 Be sure to watch carefully for leafhopper population increases in alfalfa, soybeans, snap beans, lima beans and potatoes. The hot weather last weekend resulted in a significant increase in adult and nymph populations. Once you see damage (yellowing, stunting, or "hopper burn" on leaf edges), yield loss has already occurred. Be sure to apply treatments soon after threshold levels are detected to avoid yield loss. The following treatment thresholds should be used:

 

Crop

Treatment Threshold

Alfalfa

Height

#/100 sweeps

3 inch or less

20

4-6 inch

50

7-11 inch

100

>11 inches

150

Soybeans

8 per sweep

Potatoes

1 adult/sweep or 1 nymph/10 leaves

Snap Beans

5 per sweep

Lima Beans

5 per sweep

 

 

Stone Fruits.

EPA has approved our Section 18 request for the use of Provado 1.6F on peaches, nectarines, plums and apricots to control aphids which vector the Plum Pox Virus. The following are the use restrictions:

·        Maximum of 4 applications at the 5-6 oz/acre rate by ground application

·        No more than 24 ounces of product per acre per year

·        Exemption expires October 15, 2000

 

Insect Trap Catches.

The decision to treat peppers, snap beans and sweet corn for corn borers and corn earworm is based on a combination of field scouting and trap catches. Be sure to check our website, www.udel.edu/IPM/latestblt.html, for the most recent BLT and pheromone trap catches in your area. Trap catches are updated 3 times per week on the website. You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline at 1-800-345-7544 (in-state only) or 302-831-8851. Trap catches are updated on Tuesday and Friday.

 

Cucumbers.

Both pickles and slicers should be watched for increases in aphid populations. A treatment should be applied for aphids if 10 to 20 percent of the plants are infested with aphids. Thiodan or Lannate will provide control.

 

Lima Beans.

Spider mites have been detected on seedling stage lima beans. Both field interiors as well as field edges should be examined for mites. Look for the white stippling along the veins on the underside of the leaves. A treatment should be considered when you first notice the stippling and you find 10-20 mites per leaflet. Continue to watch for lygus bugs and stinkbugs in the earliest planted fields. Treatment should be considered if you find 15 adults and/or nymphs per 50 sweeps. Lannate should be used if both species are present.

 

Melons.

Spider mite populations still remain high in many fields in Sussex County. In situations where mite populations have been high at the time of treatment, 3 to 5 applications may be needed to reduce population levels. In addition, you may need to shorten the spray interval to a 5-7 day schedule. Since we do not have any materials that are truly systemic or act as ovicides, multiple applications applied on close intervals are usually needed. In cases where poor miticide performance has been reported, control has generally been good 3-4 days after application; however, new mites continue to hatch out. If high numbers of adults or nymphs are present at the time of treatment, Capture, Danitol (both pyrethroids) or Kelthane should be used first. It is important that you do not use the same mode of action chemistry more than 2 times in a row to avoid the development of resistance. If Capture or Danitol are used twice, you should then switch to Kelthane if large numbers of adults and/or nymphs are still present. Once populations are reduced but you can still find a high number of eggs present, consider switching to Agri-Mek. Since Agri-Mek is translaminar, it will move into the leaves and provide more residual control. Remember, Agri-Mek should not be combined with any pinolene based products that prevent Agri-Mek from moving into the leaves (e.g.Agri-Mek should not be combined with Bravo WeatherStik, but it can be combined with Quadris). 

 

Peppers.

At the present time, all peppers that are ˝ inch in size or larger should be sprayed on a 7-10 day schedule for corn borer control. If Orthene or Address are used, it will also control pepper maggot. If Lannate, Spintor or a pyrethroid are used, then dimethoate should be added to the mix.

 

Potatoes.

As we get close to harvest on the earliest planted potatoes, be sure to continue to sample for potato leafhoppers and aphids. Both potato leafhopper adults and nymphs can be found in fields. The treatment threshold is 1 adult per sweep or 1 nymph per 10 leaves. Provado, Furadan  or a pyrethroid will provide control. Aphid populations have also started to increase. Before 2 weeks from harvest, the threshold is 4 aphids per leaf. Within 2 weeks from harvest, the treatment threshold increases to 10 aphids per leaf. In general, Colorado potato beetle populations are light to moderate in most fields. If Admire was used at planting be sure to alternate to Agri-Mek or Spintor when threshold levels of larvae are detected. We have also found spotted cutworm larvae feeding on potato foliage. Last season cutworms caused significant tuber quality problems in a number of fields. Although we do not have a threshold for cutworms in potatoes, be sure to watch for larvae feeding on plants. A pyrethroid should provide control.

 

Snap Beans.

Since corn borer catches remain low, snap beans will not need to be sprayed for corn borer until trap catches reach the 2 to 5 per night range in your area. At that time, processing snap beans should be sprayed with Orthene or Address at the bud and pin stages. Fresh market snap beans should be sprayed with Lannate or Capture.

 

Sweet Corn.

Fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-4 day schedule throughout the state. Corn earworm larvae can easily be found in late whorl to pre-tassel stage fresh market and processing sweet corn. In order to avoid movement into the ear zone area, a tassel treatment will be needed if 15% of the tassels are infested and again in 3-4 days. Be sure to sample your latest planted fields for fall armyworm larvae. We expect to see the first larvae during the next 7-10 day period. No controls will be needed until 15% of the plants are infested. Since Larvin is no longer available for use on sweet corn, the best options for whorl stage infestations will be Lannate, Spintor or Warrior. In general, at least 2 applications will be needed to get effective fall armyworm control in whorl stage sweet corn.

 

 


Late Blight Update - - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulations as of June 21, 2000 are as follows:

Remember that 18 DSV’s is the threshold to begin a spray program

 

Emergence

Date

DSV’s

June

21

Recommendation

April 14

124

7-day, high rate

April 21

100

7-day, high rate

April 27

100

7-day, mid rate

May 20

40

5-day, low rate

May 24

40

5-day, low rate

 

Accumulated 4 DSV’s since the last report.  Conditions continue to be favorable for late blight.

 

More DSV’s will accumulate today. The spray recommendation for emergence dates of April 14, 21, and 27 takes into consideration control of early blight as well.  This weekend will be 7 days from the last major DSV accumulation period, if late blight spores were present, symptoms could appear soon. Be on the lookout for symptoms. Scout your fields. 


 

Vegetable Crop Progress Report  Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu

Pea Harvest is moving along nicely, approaching 75% completion.  Yields have been at average levels or above, depending on location.  As we move into warmer weather, remember peas from the flowering stage on can use 1/4 to 1/3 of an inch of water per day.

 

Pickling cucumber harvest will begin on June 26, one of the earliest dates in a long time.  Full harvest will be occurring during the following week.  Again, an acre of fully grown pickling cucumber plants, with 50 to 60,000 plants per acre, will use 1/4 to 1/3 of an inch of water per day.  Many fields received from 2 to 4 inches of rain during the past seven days.  This may initiate the need for Belly Rot sprays, although it is always tough to predict if the disease is present when spraying is necessary so far in advance of harvest.  Bravo/terranil, or Quadris can be used.  Both are effective when used at the recommended rates.

 

Lima bean planting is moving forward, perhaps approaching 50% of intended levels of planting.  We are in the process of contacting many growers to participate in our Lima Bean Field Survey Program.  If you haven't heard from us by July 1, please feel free to call your Extension Agent and we will follow up.

 

Watermelons and cantaloupes have really "taken off" in most fields over the last two weeks.  There may be a slight delay in reaching first harvest due to cool conditions earlier, but only slight.

 

Harvest of Sweet Corn for fresh market will begin around June 30, slightly earlier in some regions.  Fields look to be in excellent condition.

 

 

Irrigation Field Meeting – August 22  Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu

 

Please hold August 22 for an afternoon/twilight Irrigation Tour.  The tour will focus on center pivot irrigations and include demonstrations on nozzling, scheduling and the impact of irrigation on the water table. 

 

 

More details will follow.  This tour is planned in cooperation with the Extension Systems of the Universities of Delaware and Maryland, along with the Irrigation dealers on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Delaware.


Vegetable Diseases -  Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;  everts@udel.edu

 

Melcast for Watermelons

EFI Values (Environmental Favorability Index)

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program.  Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

 

Location

6/14

6/15

6/16

6/17

6/18

6/19

6/20

6/21

Bridgeville, DE

1

2

3

0

4

3

2

1

Laurel, DE

(Collins Farms)

1

3

3

0

4

3

2

1

Galestown, MD

1

3

3

0

3

3

1

1

Georgetown, DE

0

2

3

0

4

4

2

1

Hebron, MD

1

3

3

0

3

4

2

2

Salisbury, MD

1

3

3

0

4

6

2

1

Vienna, MD

1

4

3

0

4

3

2

1

Laurel, DE

(Vincent Farms)

1

3

2

0

3

3

4

1

The first fungicide spray should be applied when the watermelon vines meet within the row.  Additional sprays 

  should be applied using MELCAST.  Accumulate EFI (environmental favorability index) values beginning the 

  day after your first fungicide spray.  Apply a fungicide spray when 30 EFI values have accumulated by the 

  weather station nearest your fields.  Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation.  After a fungicide spray, reset 

  your counter to 0 and start over.  If a spray  has not been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the 

  counter to 0 and start over.  The first and last day listed above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value 

  of this report and other reports for any specific day.

 

  If, for some reason, a serious disease outbreak occurs in your field, return to a weekly spray schedule.

 

More detailed information concerning MELCAST and sample data sheets are available on the web at http://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/vegdisease/vegdisease.htm or http://www.udel.edu/IPM/      v

 


Field Crops

 

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu

 

“Potato Leafhopper Alert” 

 Be sure to watch carefully for leafhopper population increases in alfalfa, soybeans, snap beans, lima beans and potatoes. The hot weather last weekend resulted in a significant increase in adult and nymph populations. Once you see damage (yellowing, stunting, or "hopper burn" on leaf edges), yield loss has already occurred. Be sure to apply treatments soon after threshold levels are detected to avoid yield loss. The following treatment thresholds should be used:

 

Crop

Treatment Threshold

Alfalfa

Height

#/100 sweeps

3 inch or less

20

4-6 inch

50

7-11 inch

100

>11 inches

150

Soybeans

8 per sweep

Potatoes

1 adult/sweep or 1 nymph/10 leaves

Snap Beans

5 per sweep

Lima Beans

5 per sweep

 

 

Ground Beetles.

We have received numerous inquiries about large numbers of shiny bronze colored beetles found in no-till corn and soybean fields. These insects belong to the family of beetles call carabids and they are not a pest species. They are actually beneficial because they feed on insect larvae. As their name implies, ground beetles live on the ground under leaves, logs, stones and other debris. They feed mostly at night, and may be attracted to lights. If you see plant defoliation, be sure that you do not think ground beetles are causing a problem.

 

Alfalfa.

Although all alfalfa should be sampled for leafhoppers, be sure to pay close attention to fields that were damaged by weevils. As indicated in previous newsletters, if regrowth was held back by weevils then leafhoppers can cause significant losses and potentially weaken the stand. If economic levels are present and numerous nymphs can be found, you can expect the most severe damage on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height. If treatments are applied on small alfalfa, especially as a stubble spray, you may need more than one application per cutting. If alfalfa is close to harvest (60% or more in the bud stage) and you can cut in the next 4-5 days, the field should be cut instead of sprayed. If temperatures are warm, cutting generally helps to control populations. However, fields with economic levels before cutting should still be sampled for leafhoppers within a week of harvest. Ambush, Baythroid, dimethoate, Pounce, or Warrior will provide control. If plants become drought stressed, a pyrethroid will provide the best control.

 

Soybeans.

We continue to see an increase in spider mite and grasshopper activity, especially in no-till fields. Continue to monitor field interiors as well as field edges for both pests. Look for the white stippling at the base of the leaves, which indicates the presence of mites. Treatment will be needed when you find 20-30 mites per leaflet or 10% of plants with 1/3 or more leaf area damaged. If dimethoate is used, the addition of a penetrant like LI-700 or AD 100 has been shown to improve the performance.  In many cases, grasshoppers have already moved out of ditch banks and grassy edges into the main section of fields. An edge treatment will only be effective if applied before grasshoppers move into fields. The treatment threshold is 1 per sweep and 30% defoliation. Asana, Sevin or Warrior have provided the most consistent control. We are just starting to see an increase in Japanese beetle and Asiatic Garden beetle activity. Although we rarely see economic losses from Japanese beetle feeding, significant losses can occur from Asiatic Garden Beetle. This insect is much like the Japanese beetle in its biology and feeding habits. The immature stage is a white grub that feeds on the roots of grasses such as field corn. The adults, which are copper/brown in color, emerge in early summer from field corn and can move into nearby soybean fields. They tend to feed close to the ground and adults can often be found underground. One of the biggest differences between the Japanese beetle and the Asiatic garden beetle is that Japanese beetles fly and feed during the day and Asiatic garden beetles feed at night. If you notice significant feeding but can not find an insect, be sure to dig around the base of the plants or scout for beetles at night. A treatment is needed if you find 30% defoliation prebloom or the stand is being reduced below the desired level for the row spacing. A pyrethoid will provide effective control.

                                           

                                                                                                                  Japanese Beetle

 


Field Crop DiseasesBob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Wheat streak mosaic virus identified in Delaware for the first time.

This spring while sampling for barley yellow dwarf virus a new virus was detected in the samples. The virus detected was wheat streak mosaic virus and was found in Kent County. The field was resampled and again wheat streak mosaic was confirmed using ELISA. The rod shaped virus is transmitted by the wheat curl mite, which was recently identified from plant samples from the infected field. This virus is common in the Midwest and has sporadically been found as far east as Kentucky. It was not thought to be present in the east. Much of this article was taken from a fact sheet by Doug Johnson and Don Hershmann from the University of Kentucky.

 

Wheat streak mosaic, a viral disease (WSMV) vectored by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tulipae), is common in the central plains of the US. When wheat plants become infected in the fall, yield losses can be so severe that the crop is not harvested. Spring infections usually cause minimal yield losses. However, the impact varies with other plant stresses (drought, temperature, etc.), cultivar and mite/virus populations. The impact on yield in this Kent County field is unknown at the present time, and may have no impact or very little based on visual symptoms.

 

Disease Symptoms

Infected plants normally are stunted, and have mottled and streaked leaves. The leaf streaks are green-yellow, have parallel sides, and are discontinuous. Symptoms can vary with the cultivar, strain of the virus, time of infection, and environmental conditions. Leaf mite-infested leaves tend to remain erect, with their lateral margins rolled toward the upper midrib.

Three other viruses that attack small grains occur in Delaware: barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), and soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV). There are differences between plants infected with WSMV and other viruses. Leaves of plants infected with BYDV show marginal yellowing of leaves but are not streaked. Symptoms on plants infected with WSSMV or SBWMV disappear as temperatures increase in the spring. Also, WSSMV distribution is usually widespread in the field while SBWMV occurrence is often associated with soil and drainage patterns.

Corn, although susceptible to both the mites and the WSMV, is not appreciably damaged by either. Sorghums (including johnsongrass) are very poor hosts for wheat curl mites and are immune to WSMV.

 

The only known carrier of WSMV is the wheat curl mite. Both the mites and WSMV persist on living, susceptible plants, but not on wheat or other grasses as they mature and dry down. Certain other small grains, such as oats, barley, and rye can be attacked by both WSMV and the mites, but they do not show obvious symptoms or significant damage. 

Wheat leaf curl mites survival is best during mild winters. Volunteer wheat is the major source for mite build-up. The most critical time for the mite is the period from wheat ripening until the emergence of next year's crop. Wheat curl mites must constantly be in contact with a growing wheat plant or another host. The spread of WSMV is related to the dispersal of the mite vector. While mites can be carried several miles by winds, severe infestations generally develop only within 1/4 to 1/2 mile of the source field. New infestations usually first occur along field margins and at times, these are the only areas that are affected. Mites that do not land on a suitable host plant will die. Generally, corn is in the mid-whorl stage at the time mites are leaving wheat fields. Mites that land on corn plants will crawl into the leaf sheaths to feed and reproduce. Basically, mite survival depends on corn and wheat. Corn and volunteer wheat are important in maintaining significant populations of this mite between wheat crops. This sequence also is important in keeping WSMV present in an area. The mites can carry the virus from wheat to corn and back to wheat again through growing seasons. 

 

I have seen tips of corn ears in the fall several years ago near Laurel with red streaks on the kernels which is supposedly evidence of wheat curl mite feeding damage. The mite has probably been here undetected because it is so small. The virus symptoms in the wheat field were very mild and not very striking. This is another sporadic pest that we are going to have to be aware of and include during routine virus detection. In years past I have not requested testing for wheat streak because it was not known to occur here. This year I requested a complete wheat virus screen and it was detected.

 

For more information on the virus and the wheat curl mite check out the following websites: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef117.htm

http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/entml1/wheatcur.pdf

 

Management Recommendations from Kentucky:

·        Volunteer wheat and grasses should be destroyed at least 10 days prior to planting in the fall to limit vector survival.

·        Early planting of wheat is discouraged due to increase probability of fall infection of WSMV and many other disease-causing organisms of wheat.

·        Use of resistant varieties, if available.

·        Control grassy weeds in stubble fields, in conservation reserve acres and in set-aside acres to reduce virus and mite populations.

·        The use of acaricides or insecticides against the leaf curl mite has not resulted in effective control of WSMV. Cultural practices and resistant wheat varieties are the major tools in mite and disease management.

 


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

 

Commodities Remain Susceptible to Sharp Weather Rallies

Recent rains throughout the Midwest have given rise to the idea that U.S. farmers can potentially produce a record crop this fall. Before we jump on the bandwagon proclaiming record corn and soybean crops for the year, we have to consider the time frame that we are in, the third week of June. Last year at this time Dr. Elwyn Taylor, a noted climatologist, stated that crop conditions reported at this time of year really don't mean that much in terms of final production outcome. The last chapter of the story for this year's crop will be written in the month of July and the first two weeks of August. Although recent corn belt rains have been extremely timely, setting the stage for a potentially huge crop this fall, we still need timely rains each week to keep crop development on track. Therefore, when we consider that new crop soybeans and wheat are now priced below the 2000 loan rates ($5.36 and $2.67, respectively) there remains no need to advance 2000 crop sales. New crop corn forward pricing opportunities are still present being valued at near $2.50 per bushel on a forward cash contract.

 

What lies ahead? Market analysts are reporting the corn, bean, and wheat sell-offs that have occurred this past two weeks to be too much too fast. Therefore, we are likely to get some positive price action in the commodity markets, providing favorable weather does not interfere. And there will be a close weather watch on the market as we enter the July/August calendar period!

 

 


 

Weed Science Field Day - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu  

 

The University of Delaware will hold its Annual Weed Science Field Day on Wednesday June 28, starting at 8:15 am.  We will meet in the Grove at the UD Research and Education Center on Rte. 9.  Pesticide credits will be awarded.

 

 

 

What Is In Those Soybean Herbicide Pre-Mixes? - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

 

The following is a summary of the products in commonly used pre-mixes for postemergence soybean herbicides. This is meant as a reference point to compare the amount of various products based on the use rate that is appropriate for you.

 

Premixes

Component Products

Conclude B&G (co-pack) B at 1.5 pt

                                          G at 1.5 pt

1 pt Basagran 4L plus 1 pt Blazer 2L

1.5 pt Poast Plus 1.5E

Extreme 2.17 WS at 3 pt

1.44 oz Pursuit 70 DG plus 1.5 pt Roundup original

Stellar 3.1E at 5 fl oz

6 fl oz Cobra 2E plus 4 fl oz Resource 0.86E

Storm 4S at 1.5 pt

1 pt Basagran 4S plus 1 pt Blazer 2S

Synchrony STS 42DF at 0.5 oz

0.64 oz Classic 25DF plus 0.20 oz Pinnacle 25D

Typhoon 1.41E at 1.6 qt

0.75 pt Fusilade DX 2E plus 1.5 pt Reflex 2S

 

 

Postemergence Options in Soybeans - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu  

 

Spraying Roundup Ultra over the top of Roundup Ready soybeans provides a wider window of application for effective control than with most conventional soybean herbicides.  Evaluate conventional soybeans for postemergence sprays 14 to 21 days after planting.  The smaller the weeds are the more options you have to control them, and control will be better.  Roundup Ready soybeans should be treated three to four weeks after planting for conventional tilled fields and three to five for no-till fields.  But conventional soybeans should be treated earlier than Roundup Ready soybeans.  Most conventional soybean herbicides have residual control that allows you to use them early and not need a second application.  The reason for spraying conventional soybeans early is due to achieving effective control.  The narrower window for spraying conventionally tilled, Roundup Ready soybean fields compared to no-till fields is due to moisture conservation, which should not be an issue this year.

 

 

Herbicide Injury Is Often Relative - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu  

 

Soybean injury from postemergence spraying is not uncommon.  Environment at time of application is a factor.  Cloudy weather for a few days prior to spraying and hot, humid weather at time of application are conditions to increase the likelihood of herbicide injury.  Herbicide injury can be minimized by using non-ionic surfactant rather than crop oil where possible, as well as not using liquid nitrogen or ammonium sulfate.  Below is a relative ranking of soybean injury severity for various postemergence herbicides.

 

Ranking

Herbicide

 

Most injurious

 

Cobra

Stellar

 

Moderate safety

 

Basagran

Blazer

Flexstar

Pinnacle (non-STS soybeans)

Raptor

Resource

 

Fair safety

 

Classic

Pursuit

2,4-DB

 

Good safety

 

Reflex

FirstRate

 

Least injurious

 

Assure II

Fusion

Poast/Poast Plus

Select

Roundup Ultra (Roundup-Ready soybeans)

Touchdown + Basagran  (Roundup-Ready soybeans)

Classic (STS soybeans)

Pinnacle (STS soybeans)

Synchrony STS (STS soybeans)

 

 

Touchdown Injury on Roundup Ready Soybeans - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu  

 

Roundup Ready soybeans have shown injury to Touchdown.  The injury is brown, dead spots on the leaves, similar to Blazer injury.  Only the young leaves at time of application are affected.  New growth shows no symptoms.  The plots were treated under hot, humid conditions without a surfactant.  Less than 10% leaf injury was observed.  Including 1 to 2 ounces of Basagran with the spray solution somehow greatly reduces Touchdown injury.  However, this low rate will not enhance weed control. 

 

 


Upcoming Events…

 

Vegetable Pest Scouting Twilight Meeting

Date:   June 27, 2000  (DATE CHANGE)

Time:    6:00 p.m.

Location:  Vince Winkler’s Farm, Kent County

For Further Information:

 Contact Gordon Johnson at 302-697-4000

 

 

University of Delaware Weed Science Field Day\

Date:    June 28, 2000

Time:    8:15 a.m.

Location: University of Delaware Research & Education Center Grove, Route 9, Georgetown.

For Further Information:  Contact Mabel Hough at 302-856-7303 or hough@udel.edu.

 

 

Irrigation Tour

Date: August 22, 2000

More Information To Follow.

 

 


                       Weather Summary

Week of June 15 to June 21

Rainfall:

0.13 inches: June 15, 2000

0.27 inches: June 16, 2000

0.30 inches: June 17, 2000

1.00 inch: June 18, 2000

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 90°F on June 17 to 75° F on June 19.

Lows Ranged from 72°F on June 17 & 18 to 59° F on June 20.

Soil Temperature:

80°F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

 

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.  Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

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