Volume 8, Issue 18                                                                               July 21, 2000

Vegetables

 

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Cucurbits Aphid populations continue to increase and in some cases leaf curling can be found. Treatments should be applied when 20% of the plants are infested but before leaves are curled. The only foliar materials available for aphid control on cucurbits are Lannate and Thiodan. If bees are foraging, Thiodan should be used.

 

Peppers - At the present time, all peppers that have fruit inch in size or larger should be sprayed on a 7-10 day schedule for corn borer and pepper maggot control. However, in the Milford area, sprays should be applied on a 5-7 day schedule. In addition, corn earworm control is also needed on peppers in the Milford area. Since acephate (Orthene or Address) does not provide effective earworm control, Lannate or a pyrethroid should be used. When corn earworm trap catches exceed 20 moths per night in local blacklight traps, corn earworm sprays are needed on peppers. In most other areas, acephate can still be used on a 10-day schedule or Lannate, Spintor, or a pyrethroid on a 7-day schedule.

 

Potatoes Continue to sample fields for potato leafhoppers and aphids. At this time, the aphid threshold is 10 per leaf for all early-planted fields. The potato leafhoppers threshold is 5-10 leafhoppers per 10 sweeps and/or 1 nymph per every 10 leaves.

 

Lima Beans and Snap Beans- Continue to watch fields for leafhopper adults and nymphs. The treatment threshold is 5 per sweep prebloom and 10 per sweep during bloom. In snap beans, Asana, Capture, Dimethoate, Lannate or Orthene will provide control. In lima beans, Capture, dimethoate or Lannate will provide control. If lima bean fields are in bloom, Capture or Lannate should be used. Continue to sample beans fields for spider mites showing up throughout fields. Kelthane continues to provide effective control. Processing snap beans should be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with acephate for corn borer control except in the Milford area where Capture or Asana should be added to the mix for corn earworm control. A third spray with Capture or Lannate will be needed 5-7 days from harvest. Fresh market snap beans should be sprayed on a 7-day schedule as soon as pin pods are present. Be sure to check the Crop Pest Hotline on Tuesdays and Fridays for the most recent trap catches in your area (in-state: 1-800-345-7544; out-of state: 1-302-831-8851). You can also find the most recent trap catches on our website: http://www.udel.edu/IPM/latestblt.html

 

Sweet Corn All fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-day schedule in New Castle and Kent County except in the Milford area where sprays are needed on a 2-day schedule. In Sussex County, sprays are needed on a 3-4 day schedule. Small fall armyworm larvae can be found in pre-tassel as well as whorl stage sweet corn. As tassels emerge, small larvae will drop into the ear zone area. At the present time, if fall armyworm are present in tassels and pyrethroids are being used for earworm control, be sure to use the higher labeled rates to also control fall armyworm. If fall armyworm pressure increases, a combination of a pyrethroid plus Lannate or Spintor may be needed. In whorl stage sweet corn, a treatment will be needed if 15% of the plants are infested. Lannate, Spintor or Warrior will provide control. Remember that insecticides must be washed into the whorls and 2 treatments are generally needed for control.

 


Phytophthora Blight on Pickling Cucumbers - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu

 

Reports of significant loss of pickling cucumbers have come in from two growers. Certainly, the wet conditions we have seen this year has contributed to these outbreaks. Phytophthora blight of cucurbits can occur at anytime, affecting leaves, stems, and fruit. Symptoms can include seedling damping-off, crown rot, stem lesions, foliar blight, leaf spots, and fruit rot. On pickling cucumbers, I have only seen dampling off, crown rot, and fruit rot, although the other symptoms may occur.

 

None of the fungicides tested in several states over the years have provided the control needed. The best shot at controlling Phtyophthora blight in pickling cucumbers are utilizing best management practices. When possible select fields where Phytophthora blight has never occurred. The fungus that affects cucurbits also causes blight in pepper, fruit rot in eggplant, and buckeye rot in tomatoes. Late blight in potatoes and tomatoes are caused by a different fungus.

 

It is known that two years rotation is not long enough. This is magnified by the nature of machine harvest pickles, with the discarding of oversize pickles and other fruit into the field. This can help the establishment and maintenance of the disease. Movement in the soil on equipment is probably an important means by which the disease is spread. Managing soil moisture to avoid saturated conditions is extremely important to prevent the disease from getting started. Minimize hardpans and plowpans by subsoiling and by not working ground when it is too wet. Raised beds can be helpful to move water away from the crop.

 

Excess vegetation, or leaf canopies that keep the interior of the plant shaded and wet, may also aggravate the problem. We have not seen responses to nitrogen over 100 pounds per acre in yields, so higher rates are not profitable from a yield stand point and may encourage Phytophthora blight through excess foliage.

 


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

July 14 - 20, 2000

Quantity

Produce

Price

37,571

Cantaloupes

 

 

Athena

0.25-1.50

 

Superstar

0.50

7,685

Sugar Babies 

 

 

Seeded

0.40-1.75

 

Seedless

1.65-3.50

771

Honeydews

0.35-1.60

28,565

Watermelons

 

 

Crimson Sweet

 

 

12 up

1.55

 

15 up

0.90-1.75

 

20 up

1.20-2.10

 

25 up

1.45-2.25

 

Sangria

 

 

12 up

0.75-1.50

 

15 up

1.25-1.55

 

20 up

0.70-1.80

 

25 up

1.65

 

Mardi Gras

 

 

12 up

1.00-1.40

 

15 up

0.75

 

20 up

1.35-2.00

 

Celebration

 

 

20 up

1.00-2.15

 

Stargazer

 

 

20 up

2.00

 

25 up

1.55

 

Dirmal

 

 

20 up

1.45

 

Royal Majesty

 

 

15 up

0.60-1.00

 

20 up

0.60-1.65

23

Peppers

 

 

Green

3.00-7.50

1761

Tomatoes

 

 

Red

5.00-15.00

 

Pink

4.00-10.50

 

Orange

7.50-12.00

 

Cherry

7.00

1228

Sweet Corn Doz.

1.00-1.85

53

Cucumbers

3.00-9.00

138

Squash

 

 

Yellow

3.00-9.50

 

Green

3.00-9.00

78

Potatoes

 

 

Red

4.00-8.50

27

String Beans

6.00-10.00

4

Eggplant

6.00-6.50

23

Cabbage

3.50

 

Red

3.50

23

Blackberrries

1.80-2.00

23

Pickles

7.00-9.00

 


Late Blight Update - - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulations as of July 19, 2000 are as follows:

Remember that 18 DSVs is the threshold to begin a spray program

 

Emergence

Date

DSVs

July

19

Recommendation

April 14

156

5-day, mid rate

April 21

129

5-day, mid rate

April 27

117

5-day, mid rate

May 20

69

5-day, mid rate

May 24

69

5-day, mid rate

 

Accumulated 3 DSVs since the last report. 

 

Since many early plantings are maturing and there is no late blight present in the area, spraying is probably not justified. Later plantings that are still growing should be protected at this time.

 


 

Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu

 

Melcast for Watermelons

EFI Values (Environmental Favorability Index)

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

 

Location

7/12

7/13

7/14

7/15

7/16

7/17

7/18

7/19

Bridgeville, DE

1

0

0

2

3

3

1

0

Laurel, DE

(Collins Farms)

2

0

2

3

3

2

2

1

Galestown, MD

1

0

0

3

2

2

1

0

Georgetown, DE

1

2

1

3

3

4

2

0

Hebron, MD

2

0

1

3

2

2

2

0

Salisbury, MD

3

2

1

3

1

3

1

0

Vienna, MD

2

0

0

3

3

3

2

0

Laurel, DE

(Vincent Farms)

2

0

1

2

2

2

1

0

The first fungicide spray should be applied when the watermelon vines meet within the row. Additional sprays should be applied using MELCAST. Accumulate EFI (environmental favorability index) values beginning the day after your first fungicide spray. Apply a fungicide spray when 30 EFI values have accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has not been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to 0 and start over. The first and last day listed above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day.

 

If, for some reason, a serious disease outbreak occurs in your field, return to a weekly spray schedule.

More detailed information concerning MELCAST and sample data sheets are available on the web at http://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/vegdisease/vegdisease.htm or http://www.udel.edu/IPM/ 

 


Field Crops

 

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Soybeans Continue to sample fields for spider mites and green cloverworms. Despite the rain, mite infestation levels continue to range from a few patches in a field to high populations throughout fields. Remember that it is the humidity in combination with the rain that helps to crash mite populations. The threshold is 20-30 mites per leaflet and/or 10% of the plants exhibiting mite damage (light stippling not severe damage) over more than one-third of the leaves. Before bloom, the defoliation threshold for cloverworms is 30%. As the earliest planted soybeans approach bloom, the threshold decreases to 15-20% defoliation. A pyrethroid will provide effective green cloverworm control.

 


Fertilization of Grass Hay and Pasture Fields -

Richard W. Taylor - Extension Agronomist, rtaylor@udel.edu

 

Throughout much of the state, rainfall this year has been adequate or above average. Conditions have encouraged strong growth of all the grain crops. This also holds true for grass hay and pasture fields. Unlike mixed grass and legume fields where grasses benefit from nitrogen (N) released by the companion legume crop or legume fields where the crop fixes its own N, grass hay and pasture fields need extra attention to fertilization in years where abundant rainfall ensures continued growth during the summer. To obtain the maximum production from your grass hay and pasture fields, you should fertilize them with enough N to maintain rapid, vigorous growth. Proper N fertilization, 50 lbs of N applied after each hay harvest or grazing cycle, also improves forage quality by boosting crude protein levels. Additionally, abundant rainfall can move N rapidly out of the root zone, so continued N applications after each harvest will have an even greater impact on production.

 


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

 

Selected Highlights from USDA's July Crop Report

U.S. corn production was estimated at slightly over 10 billion bushels for the 2000 crop year with ending stocks projected at 2.182 billion bushels. With a crop this size and carry out going over the 2 billion bushel mark December corn will struggle to get back above the $2.00 per bushel mark.

USDA is projecting soybean carry out to increase substantially for the 2000-2001 marketing year to 480 million bushels as compared to 290 million bushels carried into the current marketing year. This level of carry suggests a season average price of $3.90 to $4.90 per bushel for soybeans.

The U.S. wheat production forecast was placed at 2.243 billion bushels with carry out stocks estimated at 947 million bushels. Ending stocks
for U.S. wheat are just 3 million bushels below ending stocks for last year. The average price projection for new crop wheat is $2.25 to $2.75
per bushel.

The current price level for new crop corn is $1.94 per bushel; $4.57 for new crop soybeans; with September wheat at $2.45 per bushel. Weather and weekly crop condition reports will provide the stimulus for any potential immediate rallies in these markets, albeit if only slightly. Some market analysts are trying to be optimistic regarding commodity prices suggesting that the market lows are in. Unless something significant occurs, improvements seen in regard to commodity price levels will be long in coming and short lived.

The National Weather Service has now backed away from its forecast for hot, dry weather in the corn belt for the rest of the summer.

 


CROP DIAGNOSTIC

FIELD DAY

 

Improving Diagnostic Skills -

Correcting Soybean

Production Problems

Through Proper Diagnosis

 

July 26, 2000

8:00 A.M. - 1:00 P.M.

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER

GEORGETOWN, DE

WEEDS INSECTS NEMATODES FERTILITY VARIETY YIELD POTENTIAL

 

Do you feel comfortable diagnosing problems in the field?

Are you asking the right questions and looking for all the possible causes?

What should you do after the problem is diagnosed?

 

University of Delaware extension personnel will provide hands-on training to improve your trouble-shooting skills in soybean production. Participants will be involved with problem solving scenarios in a field setting and will be expected to help recommend corrective and preventative solutions.

 

Three Certified Crop Advisor Continuing Education Units (CEU) will be earned; 0.5 credit in Nutrient Management; 1 credit in Crop Management; 1.5 credits in Integrated Pest Management. Pesticide recertification credits will be earned.

        Soybean Diagnostic Field Day is open to everyone. Prior registration is required. 

        Participation is limited to first 60 applicants. Minimum sign-up required is 15 applicants.

        Registration fee is $30.00/person.

        Registration deadline is July 20.

        Checks confirm reservations.

        To be held July 26, 2000. 

        University of Delaware Research and Education Center.

 

Registration starts at 7:30 a.m. with coffee and donuts in the grove. Training starts at 8:15 a.m. Program will be finished by 1:00 p.m. Lunch provided. Hand lens and sweep nets will be available for use if needed.

 

DIRECTIONS: Traveling north or south on Route 13 turn onto Route 9 east at Laurel. Traveling north or south on Route 113 turn onto Route 9 west at Georgetown. The Research and Education Center farm is located approximately 6 miles from Route 13 on the left and same distance from Route 113 on the right. 

 

For More Information: Contact Mabel Hough at the University of Delaware Research & Education Center at 302-856-7303 (phone) 302-856-1845 (fax) or hough@udel.edu

 


Delaware Breeder, Hatchery & Grow-Out Conference

Delmarva Conference Center

Delmar, Maryland

September 13, 2000

 

7:00-7:30 am

Registration, Exhibits, Beverages/Pastries

 

GENERAL SESSION

Session Chairman

Nick Zimmermann, University of Delaware

7:30

Introductions

7:35

Mycoplasma gallisepticum Update

John Dohms, University of Delaware

8:00

Production Issues in the New Millenium: A Primary Breeder Perspective of Breeder, Hatchery and Growout Issues

Panel Discussion:

8:00

  • David Pollock, Perdue Farms Inc.

8:20

  • Derek Emerson, Ross Breeders, Inc.

8:40

  • Jerry Moye, Cobb-Vantress, Inc.

9:00

Questions

9:10

Current Status of Delmarva Environmental Regulations

John Chlada, Perdue Farms Inc

9:25

Update on Alternative Use Options for Broiler Litter

  • Pellet Plant

Mike Ferguson, Perdue Agri/Recycle Inc.

  • Gasification Plant

Bob Mitchell and Larr Enders, Allen's Family Foods, Inc.

 

Total Litter Management Program

Tom Johnson, Eastern Shore Forest Products, Inc.

10:00

Break, Refresments &Exhibits

10:20

Water Quality and Treatment Options

Charlie Hayes, Agri Solutions, Inc.

10:50

How De-regulation of Electricity will Influence Industry Profitability

Thomas Dickinson, Perdue Farms, Inc.

11:10

Automated Chicken Catchers

Jim Dennis, Perdue Farms Inc.

11:30

Scholarship Awards

11:40

Flock Supervisors' Awards

11:55

Lunch & Exhibits

12:45

Delmarva's Poultry Industry in the 21st Century: Issues and Opportunities

Charles Allen, III, Allen Family Foods, Inc.

 

 

GROWOUT SESSION

Session Chairman

John Scott, Mountaire Farms of Delmarva, Inc.

1:15 p.m.

Field Experiences with "Panels" in Poultry Houses

Inma Estevez, University of Maryland

1:35

Nipple Drinker Replacement Programs

Jim Karsnitz, Peninsula Poultry Equipment Co.

Scott Conaway, G & M Sales of Delmarva, Inc.

1:50

Sand as an Alternative Litter: Observations and Opportunities

Bud Malone, University of Delaware

2:10

Inlets: Design and Operation

Eileen Wheeler, Penn State University

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

Dark Out Housing

Mike Czarick, University of Georgia

3:40

Lighting Programs in Dark Out Housing

Ken Martin, Fieldale Farms, Inc.

4:10

Controllers

  • Experiences in the South

Mike Czarick, University of Georgia

  • Experiences on Delmarva

Bill Brown, Perdue Farms Inc.

4:40

Fellowship Hour

 

BREEDER SESSION

Session Chairman

Dick Knotts, Mountaire Farms of Delaware, Inc.

1:15 p.m.

Field Experiences with "Panels" in Poultry Houses

Inma Estevez, University of Maryland

1:35

Nipple Drinker Replacement Programs

Jim Karsnitz, Peninsula Poultry Equipment Co.

Scott Conaway, G & M Sales of Delmarva, Inc.

1:50 

On-Farm BMP's for Breeder Food Safety Issues

Greg Rosales, Ross Breeders, Inc.

2:20

Concepts of Breeder Feeding

Les Kreger, Chore Time, Brock

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

Breeder House Equipment

Matthew Mills, Roxwell

3:20

Male Fertility and Spiking Programs

Jerry Garmon, Ross Breeders, Inc.

4:10

Controllers

  • Experiences on Delmarva

Bill Brown, Perdue Farms, Inc.

 

 

HATCHERY SESSION

Session Chairman

Mike Riggleman, Allens Hatchery, Inc.

1:15 p.m

Improving Ventilation with Existing Equipment

Scott Martin, Cobb-Vantress, Inc.

1:45

Step-Down Temperature Program

Archie Northcutt, Chick Master

2:15 

Importance of Scheduling Times

Joe Mauldin, University of Georgia

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

ChickXPRESS: An Automated Chick Delivery System

Al Olinde, ChickXPRESS

3:25

Candling and Break-Out Assessment

Joe Mauldin, University of Georgia

4:25

Open Discussion

4:40

Fellowship Hour

 

 

 

Registration Deadline is August 25, 2000

Cost is $40 per person, which includes registration, proceedings and luncheon

 

Make check payable to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc. and mail to:

Bud Malone

University of Delaware

RD 6, Box 48

Georgetown, DE 19947

(302) 856-7303 (ph)

(302) 856-1845 (fax)

 


Upcoming Events

 

Soybean Twilight Field Day -July 26, 2000

University of Delaware, Research and Education Center

 

There will be a two-hour wagon tour of the soybean plots starting at 6:00 p.m. The tour will feature many of the Delaware Soybean Board funded projects. We will also review the current pest problems and discuss the potential soybean pest issues.

 

The program will start at 5:00 p.m. in the grove with a cookout consisting of hamburgers and hot dogs, and then we will board the wagons for the tour. To help us plan the amount of food to buy and how many cooks (agents) will be needed, please call Mabel Hough at 302-856-7303 (phone), 302-856-1845 (fax) or hough@udel.edu by Monday, July 24, if you plan to attend. We look forward to seeing you on the 26th.

 

 

Pickle Harvester Field Day - August 2

 

Pickle growers and related industry personnel are invited to the Pickle Harvester Field Day on August 2. Five harvesters will be on display and operating, weather permitting (Raindate August 3). Harvesters that will be present are: FMC Self-Propelled, Raven, PikRite, PikRite Prototype, and the UD modified Wilde.

 

The event will begin at 4 pm, at either Clearview Farms, or Earlview Farms, near Hurlock, Maryland. The specific field will be determined as the day approaches. For more information, call Ed Kee at 302-856-7303, or email at Kee@udel.edu.

 

 

Irrigation Field Meeting Postponed

 

The Irrigation Field Meeting that was scheduled for August 22 has been postponed until next year. With abundant rainfall this season, the demonstration plots do not show the differences that would be of interest for a tour. The Maryland/Delaware effort in this area will continue, along with the support of the irrigation dealers.

 

Funding has been acquired from the Delaware General Assembly for a fulltime Irrigation Engineer to be located at the University of Delaware Research & Education Center in Georgetown. The recruiting and interview process will take place this summer and fall.

 

 

Farm & Home Field Day August 9, 2000

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

Beginning at 8:30 a.m.

 

      Agronomic and Vegetable Field Tours

      Sick Plant Clinic

      Weed Identification Area

      Sussex Master Gardener Demonstrations

      4-H Farm Animal Display

      Sussex County Safe Kids Day Activities

      Luncheon Program

      Demonstrations, Exhibits, Carriage Rides and Much More.

 

For More Information, contact Mark Isaacs or Jay Windsor at 302-856-1997 or 302-856-7303.

 


    Weather Summary

Week of July 13 to July 19

Rainfall:

0.04 inches: July 14, 2000

0.94 inches: July 15, 2000

0.03 inches: July 16, 2000

0.85 inches: July 19, 2000

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 89F on July 18 to 74 F on July 19.

Lows Ranged from 67F on July 18 to 58 F on July 13.

Soil Temperature:

77F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

 

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

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