Volume 8, Issue 19                                                                                                        July 28, 2000

Vegetables

Vegetable Insects -  Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;  jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Peppers.

At the present time, all peppers that have fruit ½ inch in size or larger should be sprayed on a 7-10 day schedule for corn borer and pepper maggot control. However, in the Milford area, sprays should be applied on a 5-7 day schedule. In addition, since corn earworm catches still exceed 20 per night in the Milford area, a corn earworm spray is also needed. Since acephate (Orthene or Address) does not provide effective earworm control, Lannate or a pyrethroid should be used. In all other areas, acephate can still be used on a10-day schedule. Lannate, Spintor, or a pyrethroid should be used on a 7-day schedule. We are also starting to see an increase in aphid populations in peppers. Remember a continuous pyrethroid program should not be used to avoid aphid explosions. Trap catches can be found at http://www.udel.edu/IPM/latestblt.html or by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (1-800-345-7544- in-state only- or 1-302-831-8851).

 

 Lima Beans.

Continue to watch for economic levels of leafhoppers that can still be found in fields throughout the state. Remember, most labeled insecticides will only provide 7-10 days of control.  In fields with pin pods, you should sample for earworm, lygus and stinkbugs. A treatment should be applied if you find one corn earworm per 6 foot of row or 15 tarnished plant bugs and/or stinkbugs per 50 sweeps. Lannate or Capture can be used to control all 3 insects on lima beans.

 

Snap Beans.

Processing snap beans should be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with acephate for corn borer control except in the Milford area where Capture or Asana should be added to the mix for corn earworm control. A third spray with Capture or Lannate will be needed 5-7 days from harvest except in the Milford area where you will need 2 sprays between pin and harvest.  Fresh market snap beans should be sprayed on a 7-day schedule as soon as pin pods are present.

 

Sweet Corn.

All fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-day schedule except in the Milford area where sprays are needed on a 2-day schedule. Trap catches can be found at http://www.udel.edu/IPM/latestblt.html or by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (1-800-345-7544- in-state only- or 1-302-831-8851).

 

 

Vegetables - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Snap Beans and Limas.

The wet weather will favor white mold caused by Sclerotinia. If the soil has been wet for 6-10 days before bloom a fungicide is recommended. Applications should be made when 70-80% of the plants have one or more open blossoms. A second application should be made 5-6 days later. For lima beans there is a 28 day preharvest interval that must be followed if spraying with Benlate or Topsin M. Rovral can be applied up to the day of harvest and has activity against Rhizoctonia pod rot.

 

Snap Bean Rust.

Plant resistant varieties. Bravo and now Nova are labeled for susceptible varieties planted for the fall.  Pythium damping-off control is important this time of year. Ridomil Gold in a band over the row at seeding will control this disease. Another option is Ridomil Gold PC granules in the furrow at seeding if Pythium and Rhizoctonia are present and if following another bean crop.

 

Tomatoes.

Early blight and Septoria leafspots are present in some plantings. Be sure to maintain sprays of Bravo and Quadris. Alternate either chlorothalonil (Bravo, Equus) or mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate) with Quadris every 7 days.

 

Carrots.

Maintain foliar applications of Bravo every 10 days for the control of leaf blights.

 

 

Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

                           July 21 - 27, 2000

Quantity

Produce

Price

48,150

Cantaloupes

 

 

Athena

0.25-0.95

 

Superstar

0.30-0.50

7,391

Sugar Babies 

 

 

Seeded

0.50-2.45

 

Seedless

0.50-3.85

869

Honeydews

0.35-0.85

119,239

Watermelons  

 

 

Crimson Sweet

 

 

             12 up

0.40-0.90

 

             15 up

0.50-1.40

 

             20 up

0.75-2.00

 

             25 up

1.25-2.00

 

Sangria

 

 

            15 up

0.60-1.15

 

            20 up

0.50-1.50

 

             25 up

1.25-1.80

 

Mardi Gras

 

 

            20 up

1.30

 

Celebration

 

 

            15 up

0.85

 

            20 up

0.60-2.10

 

Dirmal

 

 

            20 up

0.75

 

Royal Majesty

 

 

            15 up

0.80-1.00

 

            20 up

0.60-1.20

 

Royal Sweet

 

 

           25 up

1.25

 

           30 up

1.70-1.75

26

Peppers 

 

 

Green

4.00-7.50

2040

Tomatoes

 

 

Red

4.00-16.00

 

Pink

3.00-10.50

 

Orange

6.00-10.50

 

Cherry

3.00-6.50

186

Sweet Corn Doz. 

1.30-1.45

89

Cucumbers 

2.00-10.00

189

Squash 

 

 

Yellow

3.00-11.00

 

Green

4.00-12.00

47

Potatoes 

 

 

Red

5.00-7.00

44

String Beans

6.00-16.50

5

Eggplant

5.50

28

Pickles

4.00-6.00

 

Lima Beans

14.00-27.00

 

Late Blight Update -  Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulations as of July 26, 2000 are as follows:

Remember that 18 DSV’s is the threshold to begin a spray program

 

Emergence

Date

DSV’s

July

26

Recommendation

April 27

136

5-day, mid rate

May 20

88

5-day, mid rate

May 24

88

5-day, mid rate

 

Accumulated 14 DSV’s since the last report. 

 

Since many early plantings are maturing and there is no late blight present in the area, spraying is probably not justified. Later plantings that are still growing should be protected at this time. The recent wet weather will favor foliage diseases such as early blight, late blight, and Botrytis vine rot, and the tuber diseases soft rot, pink rot and leak. Leak can become a problem if the weather gets very hot. Ridomil applications back at flowering or planting are looking like a good investment given the current weather pattern. Hopefully we will get some dry weather soon so you can dig.

 

Vegetable Diseases -  Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;  everts@udel.edu

 

 

 

 

Pickling Cucumbers.

Phytophthora fruit rot is a disease that can infect all cucurbit fruit including pickling cucumbers.  Fruit rot is a different phase of crown and root rot, all caused by Phytophthora capsici and other Phytophthora spp.  The symptoms are initially large water soaked lesions which develop a white dense growth on the fruit. The disease can spread rapidly and fruit collapse.  This continues after harvest.  Like the crown and root rot phase, high soil moisture (typically standing water) for two days allows the sporangia to form and release zoospores.  Secondary infections then occur.  Infection can also occur in fall pickles following a spring crop which was under standing water. 

 

Water management is critical to reducing damage from this disease.  Avoid planting susceptible crops in low lying areas where standing water is common.  Plant on raised beds and subsoil between crops to avoid layers that are impervious to water.  A three year rotation is important.  Crops to avoid in the rotation are all cucurbits (including melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin) and pepper, tomato and eggplant.

 

Gummy Stem Blight.

Weather conditions are excellent for spread of gummy stem blight on watermelon.  Continue to apply Quadris (11-15.4 oz./A) alternated with chlorothalonil on a 7-day interval or according to the MELCAST program for watermelons.   This fungicide combination has consistently given the best results in research trials in Delaware and Maryland. 

 


 

Melcast for Watermelons

EFI Values (Environmental Favorability Index)

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program.  Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

 

Location

7/19

7/20

7/21

7/22

7/23

7/24

7/25

7/26

Bridgeville, DE

0

0

3

0

2

0

3

2

Laurel, DE

(Collins Farms)

1

0

3

1

2

1

1

5

Galestown, MD

0

0

2

0

2

1

4

5

Georgetown, DE

0

6

2

0

3

1

1

2

Hebron, MD

0

0

3

0

2

0

1

5

Salisbury, MD

0

5

3

0

2

0

4

7

Vienna, MD

0

0

3

0

3

1

3

3

Laurel, DE

(Vincent Farms)

0

0

1

0

2

0

3

6

The first fungicide spray should be applied when the watermelon vines meet within the row.  Additional sprays

  should be applied using MELCAST.  Accumulate EFI (environmental favorability index) values beginning the

  day after your first fungicide spray.  Apply a fungicide spray when 30 EFI values have accumulated by the

  weather station nearest your fields.  Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation.  After a fungicide spray, reset

  your counter to 0 and start over.  If a spray  has not been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the

  counter to 0 and start over.  The first and last day listed above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value

  of this report and other reports for any specific day.

 

  If, for some reason, a serious disease outbreak occurs in your field, return to a weekly spray schedule.

 

More detailed information concerning MELCAST and sample data sheets are available on the web at http://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/vegdisease/vegdisease.htm or http://www.udel.edu/IPM/      v

 

 


 

Field Crops

 

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Soybeans.

We have received a number of questions about the addition of an insecticide with the second application of Roundup to control corn earworm populations later in the season. If applied during the next 7-day period, these treatments will be too early to control earworms later in the season. As we all know, this is a very different year compared to 1999. At this time last year, corn was already beginning to dry down and earworm moths started to look for “green fields” for egg laying. This year there are more acres of later planted corn which will be more attractive to corn earworm moths. In addition, if the weather remains wet and humid, we will see more diseases in corn earworms, which can help crash populations. The combination of Roundup plus an insecticide might work on late-planted soybeans if applications are being made during the third and fourth weeks of August and economic levels are present.  However, given current weather patterns and the condition of the corn, many unnecessary treatments could still be applied if fields are not scouted. It is still best to scout fields and make a decision based on individual field situations. As in most years, we will see hot spots of activity so the best strategy to avoid problems and unnecessary sprays is to scout fields. We continue to see our highest corn earworm moth catches in the Milford area (both pheromone and blacklight traps).

 

Fields should still be checked for grasshoppers, spider mites and green cloverworms . We have started to see a crash in mite populations in some areas but it is not widespread.  Once fields start to bloom, you should also begin checking for corn earworm. The treatment threshold is 3/25 sweeps (narrow rows) and 5/25 sweeps (wide  rows).

 

There have also been reports of aphids in later planted soybeans in Dorchester County, Maryland. The species found was green peach aphid. Early in the season, a field in Maryland was sprayed for aphids due to high populations causing curling and stunting. Although we have not seen aphid problems in soybeans in the past, they do see problems on soybeans in Virginia. This insect is known to vector soybean mosaic, which we occasionally see in Delaware. Although we do not think we will see a problem in Delaware, we will be surveying fields more closely in the next few weeks to see if populations are widespread. As you are sampling for thrips and mites, you should examine leaves carefully for the presence of aphids. You will need to examine leaves with a hand lens since small aphids can often be mistaken for small leafhoppers. Remember, all aphids have “tailpipes” (cornicles) which are not present on leafhoppers. In addition, we also have many beneficials in soybeans that could help to clean up a population. We do not have thresholds for aphids on soybeans in our areas; however, if plant damage on small plants is causing curling and stunting and beneficial insects are not present, then an insecticide may be needed. If  you do treat, you will need to know which species is present. In general, pyrethroids do not provide very effective green peach aphid control. Materials labeled on soybeans that provide good green peach aphid control in vegetables include: Lannate and in some crops dimethoate. Both of these materials need to be applied before significant leaf curling occurs. 

 

 

Soybeans - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu

 

Weed Control in Double-Cropped Roundup Ready Soybeans.

There is a lot of interest in only one Roundup or Touchdown application for weed control with double-cropped soybeans.  We have tried this in situations of very high weed populations and heavy seedbanks and have not been successful with only one application of Roundup.  However, I have seen fields with light weed pressure being successful with this approach.  If you are interested in trying this, be sure to scout the fields so that the first application is applied timely.  You are trying to time that application for after emergence of new seedlings, but before weeds present at small grain harvest have had a chance to compete with the soybeans.  As I mentioned, with heavy weed pressure, you may need to spray before all the new seedlings have emerged.  Also, be sure to re-check these fields to see if you need a second application.

 

Poor Marestail Control in Soybeans.

There are a few no-till fields treated with Roundup Ultra or Touchdown for burndown before soybean planting where marestail control is not acceptable.  Most of these fields have been retreated with Roundup or Touchdown, and marestail control is fair to poor.  Some of these fields have been treated with over 4 qts of Roundup (or equivalent rate of Touchdown) and marestail is still present.  The marestail is stunted but often not killed.  I do not understand why this is occurring, but we are gathering plants for further studies.

 

We applied treatments in a field that had poor control of marestail with Roundup Ultra prior to planting.  In this study (plants are still responding to the treatments), 2 qts of Roundup applied after the plants have started to regrow from the burndown treatment, is stunting the marestail, but will probably not kill them.  With what has been observed to date, FirstRate is showing the highest level of control but it is about 75% control.  Classic at 2/3 oz rate was not as good as FirstRate for marestail control.  Switching to FirstRate for marestail control may require a tankmix partner since it is not very effective for grass, pigweed, or lambsquarters for postemergence control. 

 

 

Field Crops - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Soybeans.

Septoria leafspot is present in some fields. Both full season and double-crop. Look for infected unifoliate leaves and lower trifoliate leaves. This fungus produces small, angular red-brown spots with yellow borders on the oldest leaves and if wet weather persists will move higher in the canopy on susceptible varieties. This disease is routinely seen here but rarely causes any economic damage.

 

Soybean cyst nematode has been seen in scattered fields. In seasons like this with ample rainfall SCN damage can be masked, meaning that you don’t see the yellowing and stunting that we normally see. The nematodes are still there but the plants look good from the road. The only symptoms you may see are uneven height or if in wide rows, the canopy never closes. Check susceptible varieties during the growing season by digging up plants in several spots in the field and look for the tell-tale signs of the nematode, white and yellow cysts on the infected roots.

 

Corn.

Wet weather can mean leaf blights. We have identified what I think is yellow leaf blight caused by Phyllosticta. This is a minor disease which is favored by wet weather.

 

Southern corn leaf blight has also been seen.

 

 

Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

 

Market Attention Turns to Export Sales.

U.S. corn exports were reported at 654,200 metric tons for the week ending July 21, 19 percent below the previous week and 9 percent under the 4 week average. For soybeans, net sales of 247,400 metric tons were 18 percent over the prior week, but 5 percent below the 4 week average. Although this number came in below trade expectations, additional soybean sales of 270,600 metric tons were reported for the 2000/2001 marketing year and soy meal sales at 181,700 metric tons were more than two times the previous week and almost 3 times the 4 week average. U.S. wheat sales of 815,800 metric tons were 39 percent above the previous week and 80 percent above the 4 week average, a marketing year high. The weekly export sales level for wheat was well above trade expectations.

 

U.S. Ag Exports Up 10% On the Year.

U.S. agricultural exports are now running 10 % above 1999 levels, led by strong gains in soybean and meat exports. The U. S. Commerce Department monthly reports from January to May, 2000 show ag exports valued at $20.68 billion versus $18.84 billion for the first five months of 1999.

 

 

Delaware Breeder, Hatchery & Grow-Out Conference

Delmarva Conference Center

Delmar, Maryland

September 13, 2000

 

7:00-7:30 am

Registration, Exhibits, Beverages/Pastries

 

GENERAL SESSION

Session Chairman

Nick Zimmermann, University of Delaware

7:30

Introductions

7:35

Mycoplasma gallisepticum Update

John Dohms, University of Delaware

8:00

Production Issues in the New Millenium: A Primary Breeder Perspective of Breeder, Hatchery and Growout Issues

Panel Discussion:

8:00

  • David Pollock, Perdue Farms Inc.

8:20

  • Derek Emerson, Ross Breeders, Inc.

8:40

  • Jerry Moye, Cobb-Vantress, Inc.

9:00

Questions

9:10

Current Status of Delmarva Environmental Regulations

John Chlada, Perdue Farms Inc

9:25

Update on Alternative Use Options for Broiler Litter

  • Pellet Plant

        Mike Ferguson, Perdue Agri/Recycle Inc.

  • Gasification Plant

        Bob Mitchell and Larr Enders, Allen's Family Foods, Inc.

 

 

Total Litter Management Program

Tom Johnson, Eastern Shore Forest Products, Inc.

10:00

Break, Refresments &Exhibits

10:20

Water Quality and Treatment Options

Charlie Hayes, Agri Solutions, Inc.

10:50

How De-regulation of Electricity will Influence Industry Profitability

Thomas Dickinson, Perdue Farms, Inc.

11:10

Automated Chicken Catchers

Jim Dennis, Perdue Farms Inc.

11:30

Scholarship Awards

11:40

Flock Supervisors' Awards

11:55

Lunch & Exhibits

12:45

Delmarva's Poultry Industry in the 21st Century: Issues and Opportunities

Charles Allen, III, Allen Family Foods, Inc.

 

 

GROWOUT SESSION

Session Chairman

John Scott, Mountaire Farms of Delmarva, Inc.

1:15 p.m.

Field Experiences with "Panels" in Poultry Houses

Inma Estevez, University of Maryland

1:35

Nipple Drinker Replacement Programs

Jim Karsnitz, Peninsula Poultry Equipment Co.

Scott Conaway, G & M Sales of Delmarva, Inc.

1:50

Sand as an Alternative Litter: Observations and Opportunities

Bud Malone, University of Delaware

2:10

Inlets: Design and Operation

Eileen Wheeler, Penn State University

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

Dark Out Housing

Mike Czarick, University of Georgia

3:40

Lighting Programs in Dark Out Housing

Ken Martin, Fieldale Farms, Inc.

4:10

Controllers

  • Experiences in the South

        Mike Czarick, University of  Georgia

  • Experiences on Delmarva

        Bill Brown, Perdue Farms Inc.

4:40

Fellowship Hour

 

BREEDER SESSION

Session Chairman

Dick Knotts, Mountaire Farms of Delaware, Inc.

1:15 p.m.

Field Experiences with "Panels" in Poultry Houses

Inma Estevez, University of Maryland

1:35

Nipple Drinker Replacement Programs

Jim Karsnitz, Peninsula Poultry Equipment Co.

Scott Conaway, G & M Sales of Delmarva, Inc.

1:50

On-Farm BMP's for Breeder Food Safety Issues

Greg Rosales, Ross Breeders, Inc.

2:20

Concepts of Breeder Feeding

Les Kreger, Chore Time, Brock

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

Breeder House Equipment

Matthew Mills, Roxwell

3:20

Male Fertility and Spiking Programs

Jerry Garmon, Ross Breeders, Inc.

4:10

Controllers

  • Experiences on Delmarva

Bill Brown, Perdue Farms, Inc.

 

 

HATCHERY SESSION

Session Chairman

Mike Riggleman, Allen’s Hatchery, Inc.

1:15 p.m

Improving Ventilation with Existing Equipment

Scott Martin, Cobb-Vantress, Inc.

1:45

Step-Down Temperature Program

Archie Northcutt, Chick Master

2:15

Importance of Scheduling Times

Joe Mauldin, University of Georgia

2:40

Break, Refreshments & Exhibits

3:00

ChickXPRESS: An Automated Chick Delivery System

Al Olinde, ChickXPRESS

3:25

Candling and Break-Out Assessment

Joe Mauldin, University of Georgia

4:25

Open Discussion

4:40

Fellowship Hour

 

 

 

Registration Deadline is August 25, 2000

Cost is $40 per person, which includes registration, proceedings and luncheon

 

Make check payable to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc.  and mail to:

Bud Malone

University of Delaware

RD 6, Box 48

Georgetown, DE  19947

(302) 856-7303 (ph)

(302) 856-1845 (fax)

 

Upcoming Events…

 

Pickle Harvester Field Day - August 2

 

Pickle growers and related industry personnel are invited to the Pickle Harvester Field Day on August 2.  Five harvesters will be on display and operating, weather permitting (Raindate – August 3).  Harvesters that will be present are:  FMC Self-Propelled, Raven, PikRite, PikRite Prototype, and the UD modified Wilde.

 

The event will begin at 4 pm, at either Clearview Farms, or Earlview Farms, near Hurlock, Maryland.  The specific field will be determined as the day approaches.  For more information, call Ed Kee at 302-856-7303, or email at Kee@udel.edu.

 

Farm & Home Field Day – August 9, 2000

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

Beginning at 8:30 a.m.

 

Ø      Agronomic and Vegetable Field Tours

Ø      Sick Plant Clinic

Ø      Weed Identification Area

Ø      Sussex Master Gardener Demonstrations

Ø      4-H Farm Animal Display

Ø      Sussex County Safe Kid’s Day Activities

Ø      Luncheon Program

Ø      Demonstrations, Exhibits, Carriage Rides and Much More.

Ø       

For More Information, contact Mark Isaacs or Jay Windsor at 302-856-1997 or 302-856-7303.

 

 

 

                Weather Summary

Week of July 20 to July 27

Rainfall:

0.81 on July 20

0.01 on July 24

0.08 on July 25

0.71 on July 26

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 83°F on July 22 to 71° F on July 25.

Lows Ranged from 68°F on July 26 to 61° F on July 23.

Soil Temperature:

73°F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

 

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu

 

 

 

Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

 

Andrew Turner

Student

 

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.  It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.