Volume 9, Issue 10                                                                      June 1, 2001

Vegetables

 

Vegetable Insects -  Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Cucumbers.

Both pickles and slicers should be watched for increases in aphid and cucumber beetle populations. Fresh market cucumbers are very susceptible to bacterial wilt vectored by cucumber beetles. Although pickling cucumbers grown in high-density rows can compensate for about a 10 percent stand loss, beetle feeding can reduce plant growth. If moderate feeding can be found in the cotyledons and/or the first true leaves and there is a history of bacterial wilt on your farm, a cucumber beetle spray should be applied. Actara, Thiodan, a pyrethroid or Lannate will provide control. A treatment should be applied for aphids if 10 to 20 percent of the plants are infested with aphids. Actara, Thiodan or Lannate will provide control.

 

Melons.

Economic levels of cucumber beetles, aphids and spider mites continue to be found. As vines begin to run, be sure to sample carefully for spider mites. The threshold is 20- 30% infested crowns with 1-2 mites per leaf. If populations of mites have exploded and adult mites are the predominant life stage, Capture, Danitol or Kelthane should be used. If the population is a mixture of eggs, immature mites and lower levels of adult mites, Agri-Mek should be used at 8 oz/acre. A second miticide application may be needed in 3-7 days depending on the population level at treatment time. If populations are heavy or numerous eggs are present at the time of treatment, at least 2-4 miticide applications will be needed. Be sure to also sample melons for aphids. The treatment threshold for aphids is 20% infested plants with at least 5 aphids per leaf. Actara, Fulfill, Lannate and Thiodan are labeled on melons and will provide melon aphid control. Actara, Lannate and Thiodan will also provide cucumber beetle control.  Capture will provide cucumber beetle and spider mite control.

 

Peas.

Be sure to sample fields for pea aphids starting at the bud stage and continuing through harvest. Populations have increased in fields throughout the state. With the recent cool, weather beneficial insect activity has started to lag behind.

 

Peppers.

When fruit is ½-inch in size or larger, peppers should be sprayed on a 7 –10 day schedule for corn borer control.  Orthene or Address (both acephate) should be used on a 10-day schedule and will also provide pepper maggot control.  Remember - only 2 applications of acephate at the 1 1/3 lb per acre rate can now be used.   If a pyrethroid or Lannate is used, sprays should be applied on a 7-day schedule and dimethoate should be added to the mix for pepper maggot control. If no fruit is present, be sure to watch for larvae tunneling into the main stems of peppers. Sprays must be applied before larvae move into the stems to achieve effective control.

 

Potatoes.

Economic levels of CPB adults and small larvae can still be found in the earliest planted fields. Actara, Spintor or Provado will provide control. The first ECB egg masses and stem entrances have been detected in potatoes. Be sure to check our website (http://www.udel.edu/IPM/traps/latestblt.html) for the most recent moth catches in your area. If trap catches are being used to time sprays, the first application will be needed this week. Ambush, Baythroid, Furadan, Penncap, or Pounce will provide control. If you are scouting for infested terminals, the first treatment should be applied when 20-25% of the terminals are infested. Furadan or Monitor will provide the best control if you are waiting until you see infested terminals. Continue to sample for potato leafhopper adults and nymphs. As a general guideline, controls should be applied if you find ½ to one adult per sweep and/or one nymph per every 10 leaves. A pyrethroid, Actara or Provado will provide control.

 

Sweet Corn.

Be sure to watch the earliest planted fields for European Corn Borer larvae. We are starting to see our first larvae in whorl stage sweet corn.  A treatment should be applied if 15% of the plants are infested. The best timing for a treatment is just as the tassels are emerging from the whorls. In recent years, the best corn control has been achieved with Ambush, Pounce, Penncap or Warrior.

 

 


Update on Sandea Herbicide for Cucumbers - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu  and Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu

 

Sandea has received a 24c third party label in Delaware for use on cucumbers, both fresh market and pickling.  The material can be used pre-emergence after planting,but before cracking at 2/3 to 1 ounce per acre.  This application will control many broadleaf weeds, including redroot pigweed, lambsquarter, jimsonweed, and ragweed.  It will also provide some control of yellow nutsedge.  It can be tank-mixed with Command to obtain grass control.

 

Sandea can also be used as a post-emergence treatment at 2/3 to 1 ounce with nonionic surfactant at a rate of 0.25% of the spray solution (1 quart/100 gallons).  The same weeds will be controlled, with better control of nutsedge to be expected.  Check the label for a complete listing of weeds controlled.

 

Postemergence applications can be made after the crop has reached the 1-2 true leaf stage, but before the 5-6 true leaf stage.  Applications must be made 30 days before harvest, and by ground application only.

 

Sandea cannot be applied to crops treated with soil applied organophosphate insecticides, nor should such insecticides be applied 7 days before Sandea application, or 3 days after.

 

Cucumber producers interested in using this material must sign a waiver of liability with the dealer, and with the Vegetable Growers Assn. of Delaware, which is the third party labeling organization.  This waiver will be mailed out to the pickling cucumber growers and other slicer growers we have identified.  If you are interested, contact Ed Kee at 856-7303 or by email (Kee@udel.edu).

 

Read the label carefully for other instructions and restrictions.

 

 


Vegetable Diseases - - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Potatoes.

To control pink rot caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica and P. nicotianae, and leak caused by Pythium apply Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil Gold /Bravo, or Flouronil between the time the potatoes are nickle-sized until flowering, and repeat 14 days later.

 

 


Late Blight Update - - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulations as of May 30, 2001 are as follows:

Remember that 18 DSV’s is the threshold to begin a spray program

 

Emergence

Date

DSV’s

May 16

DSV’s

May 17

DSV’s

May 20

DSV’s

May 30

Recommendation

April 28

0

11

29

51

5-day, low rate

 

Potatoes that have reached greenrow (50% emergence) since May 18 have all reached more than 18 DSV’s.

 

Growers should be applying a fungicide for late blight control at this time.   Please check the University of Delaware’s IPM website http://www.udel.edu/IPM for the most current DSV accumulations.  DSV’s are updated twice a week.

 

 


Vegetable Diseases -  Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;  everts@udel.edu

 

MELCAST for Watermelons

EFI Values (Environmental Favorability Index)

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program.  Any questions, please call David Armentrout at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: da88@umail.umd.edu

 

Location

5/23

5/24

5/25

5/26

5/27

5/28

5/29

5/30

Bridgeville, DE

 

0

0

2

4

1

1

0

Laurel, DE

(Collins Farms)

 

0

0

2

1

1

1

1

Galestown, MD

 

1

0

2

4

0

1

1

Georgetown, DE

1

1

0

1

2

1

1

0

Hebron, MD

 

0

0

2

3

1

2

1

Salisbury, MD

 

1

0

2

2

1

2

1

Laurel, DE

(Vincent Farms)

 

0

0

1

2

1

3

1

Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields.  Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation.  After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over.  If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero.  The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day

 

More detailed information concerning MELCAST and sample data sheets are available on the web at http://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/vegdisease/vegdisease.htm. .     v

 

 


DDA Logo
Licensed and Bonded Dealers in Agricultural Products

The Delaware Department of Agriculture grants licenses to Dealers of Agricultural Products. The Dealers include Delaware brokers, as well as, out-of-state brokers licensed as dealers of agricultural products in the State of Delaware. The Department of Agriculture makes no warranty concerning the use of this list.

For more information, contact Cliff Hudson, DDA, 302-739-4811.

License No.

Company/Address

Letter of
Credit

Bond
Expiration

128-01

L & L Melon Sales Inc.

 

7/9/01

 

P. O. Box 288, 90 U.S. Route 13

 

 

 

Laurel, Delaware 19956

 

 

129-01

Wm. P. Hearne Produce Co., Inc.

 

12/31/01

 

P.O. Box 1975

 

 

 

Salisbury, Maryland 21802

 

 

130.01

Seabrook Brothers & Sons, Inc.

 

12/31/01

 

P.O. Box 5103

 

 

Seabrook, New Jersey 08302

 

131-01

Agway, Inc.

 

12/31/01

 

Country Products Group,
333 Butternut Drive

 

 

DeWitt, New York 13214

 

132-01

McMelon, Inc.

1/01/02

 

P. O. Box 1077

 

 

Lake Wales, Florida 33859

 

133-01

Sunnyboy Produce Co., Inc.

12/07/01

 

3301 S. Galloway St., Rm 248

 

 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19148

 

134-01

Tri Winner Irving Acres, Inc.

12/31/01

 

P. O. Box 1289, Houlton Road

 

Presque Isle, Maine 04769

 

135-01

C & J Transport, Inc.

12/31/01

 

J. R. Sales

 

 

P. O. Box 267

 

 

Fairfield, Maine 04937

 

136-01

Potandon Produce L.L.C.

12/31/01

 

3242 South Woodruff Avenue

 

 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404

 

137-01

Pacific Heartland, LTD

12/31/01

 

4335 State Road 60 West

 

 

Mulberry, Florida 33860

 

138-01

Hapco Farms, Inc.

12/31/01

 

889 Harrison Avenue

 

 

Riverhead, New York 11901

 

139-01

Maine Potato Growers, Inc.

12/31/01

P. O. Box 271

 

 

Presque Isle, Maine 04769

 

140-01

Thomas E. Moore, Inc.

4/14/01

 

P. O. Box 794

 

Dover, Delaware 19903

141-01

John F. Cope Co., Inc.

12/31/01

 

John Cope’s Food Products, Inc.

 

156 W. Harrisburg Ave., P. O. Box 419 Rheems, Pennsylvania 17570

142-01

Maine Farmers Exchange

12/31/01

 

P. O. Box 869

 

Presque Isle, Maine 04769

143-01

M. G. Ford Produce, Inc.

 1-0001

2/15/02

 

P. O. Box 2872

 

 

Labelle, Florida 33975

 

144-01

W. B. M. Potato Brokerage, Inc.

 

12/31/01

 

5616 Old State Road

 

 

Lincoln, Delaware 19960

 

145-01

S. E. W. Friel

 

1/16/02

 

P. O. Box 10

 

 

Queenstown, Maryland 21658-0010

 

146-01

12/31/01

P. O. Box 334

Hanover, PA 17331

147-01

Agrilink Foods, Inc.

12/31/01

P. O. Box 20670

Rochester, NY 14602-0670

148-01

Morris Pagano, Inc.

3/27/02

69-71 Brooklyn Terminal Market

Brooklyn, New York  11236

149-01

12/31/01

Division of United Foods, Inc.

Ten Pictsweet Drive

Bells, Tennessee 38006

150-01

Furman Foods, Inc.

3/22/02

P.O. Box 500

Northumberland, Pennsylvania  17857-0500

151-01

1/14/02

P.O. Box 430/316 N. Race Street

Georgetown, Delaware  19947

152-01

Dosse Givens, Inc.

12/31/01

23000 Concord Pond Road

Seaford, Delaware  19973

153-01

2/14/02

260 S. Blacks Corners

Imlay City, Michigan  48444

 

 

 


Field Crops

 

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Field Corn.

Continue to watch for armyworms moving from small grain fields into nearby corn fields. The treatment threshold for armyworms in corn is 25% infested plants with larvae less than one-inch long. A pyrethroid will provide effective control. Cutworms remain active and fields should be scouted through the 5th leaf stage. At the 5 leaf stage, a treatment is needed if 5% of the plants are cut and larvae are one inch or less in size.

 

Small Grains.

Continue to sample barley and wheat for armyworm populations. Economic levels continue to be found in wheat and barley. The treatment threshold on wheat is 2 per foot of row and on barley the threshold is one per foot. On wheat, Warrior, Lannate or Parathion can be used. On barley, Lannate or Parathion can be used. Warrior has a 30 day wait until harvest, Parathion a 14 day wait and Lannate a 7 day wait.

 

Soybeans.

With the cooler weather and wet soils, both seed corn maggot and slugs will be a potential problem in no-till soybeans. In no-till fields, seed corn maggot will remain a problem through early June. Flies continue to lay eggs and maggots will be present at the time of seed germination. The only hopper box treatment available with a soybean label is Kernel Guard Supreme. The active ingredient is  permethrin and it should be used at a rate of 1.5 oz per 50 lbs. of seed. If slugs start to feed on soybeans, the metaldehyde baits should be considered. Results from Ohio indicate that the mini-pellet formulations provide the most effective control.

 

Alfalfa.

We continue to get calls about alfalfa weevil feeding on regrowth after the first cutting. Fields should be checked within a week of harvest for larvae feeding on regrowth. If you can find 2 or more larvae per crown or 50% tip feeding, a treatment should be considered. Baythroid, Imidan, Furadan or Warrior will provide control. 

 

 


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

 

World Coarse Grain Use Projected at a Record Pace
The International Grains Council is now forecasting record world coarse grain use at 902 million metric tons for the 2001/02 marketing year. This is a 14 mmt increase in world use from the current marketing year. The projected increase in world coarse grain use is largely attributed to stronger demand for poultry feed in developing nations.

Low Prices Equal Sales
Export news around the world and in the U.S. has been rather brisk this week. The reason being when commodity prices get low enough, sales happen. U.S. exports are currently reported to be moving to Jordon, South Korea, and China.

Crop Progress/Condition
Crop progress reports this week show U.S. corn 95% planted, 3% over the 5 year average. 70% of the nation's corn crop is reported to be in the good/excellent categories, 2% less than last week and equal to last year. U.S. soybeans are 70% planted, 6% over the 5 year average, with 61% of the crop in the good/excellent categories, down 5 points from last year. The general condition of the winter and spring wheat crops has declined slightly from last week, with 89% of the spring wheat crop planted.

General Comments
Rains occurring generally across the U.S. the past two weeks have, for the moment alleviated crop moisture concerns. Rain makes grain, however, it also takes heat units (growing degree days) to produce normal to better grain crops and the U.S. is presently lacking in heat units. This is why we saw a reduction in the crop condition ratings this week as compared to last. With brisk export news in the U.S. and around the world, we should see some gains in commodity prices in the near term. Apparently, the army worm scare had little to no impact upon commodity prices. Currently, Dec. corn closed at $2.09 in overnight trade, Nov. soybeans at $4.20, and July wheat at $2.64 per bushel.  No sales are warranted at this time.

 

 


Maximum Corn Size for Postemergence Herbicide Applications - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu

 

Broadcast applications refer to an over the top application and directed refers to use of special spray equipment to direct the spray and avoiding the spray coming in contact with the whorl of the corn.   When corn height and collar number are given, base your decision on whichever feature is first attained.

 

Herbicides

Maximum Corn Size

Accent

broadcast:  6 collars or 24 in.;

directed: 10 collars or 36 in.

Aim

broadcast: up to 8 collars;

directed: when necessary

Atrazine

12 inches tall

Banvel or Clarity

more than ½ pt/A:  broadcast: 5 lvs or 8 in.; directed: 36 inches tall ½ pt/A or less:  36 inches tall

Basagran

No restrictions listed

Beacon

broadcast: min- 4 inches tall and max- 20 in. tall or 6 collar;

directed: pre-tassel

Bladex

prior to when 5th leaf is visible

Buctril

pre-tassel

2,4-D Amine

broadcast: 8 inches tall;

directed: pre-tassel

2,4-D Ester

broadcast: 8 inches tall;

directed: pre-tassel

Evik

directed only: 12 inches tall do not apply 3 weeks before tasseling

Liberty

broadcast: 24 inches tall or 7 collars;

directed: 20 to 36 inches tall

Permit

broadcast: 48 inches tall;

directed: when necessary

Pinnacle

1 – 4 collars or 12 inches tall

Resource

broadcast: 2- to 10-lf collars;

directed: when necessary;

Roundup Ultra and UltraMax

up to 30 inches or 8 collars

Stinger

24 inches tall

Touchdown

up to 8 collars

Tough

until 68 days pre-harvest

Premixes

Basis

2 collars or 6 inches tall

Basis Gold

5 collars or 12 inches tall

Celebrity Plus

broadcast: 4 to 24 inches tall

Distinct

6 oz rate:  4 to 10 inches  tall;

4 oz rate:  up to 24 in.  tall

Exceed

broadcast: min- 4 in. tall; max- 20 in. tall or 6 collar;

directed: 20 to 30 inches tall

Hornet

broadcast:  24 inches tall;

directed: until 85 days pre-harvest

Laddok

12 inches tall

Liberty ATZ

12 inches tall

Lightning

broadcast: 12 inches tall;

directed: 20 inches tall

Marksman

broadcast:  5-lf stage or 8 inches tall

Northstar

broadcast: min- 4 inches tall and max- 20 in. tall or 6 collar;

directed: 20 to 30 inches tall

Ready Master ATZ      

emergence until 12 inches tall

Shotgun

broadcast: 8 inches tall;

directed: 12 inches tall or if rate >2 pts

Spirit

broadcast: 20 inches tall or 6 collars (minimum ht. 4 in. tall);

directed: 20 to 24 inches tall (before tassel emerg.) 

 

 


 UPCOMING MEETINGS:

 

The Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) Collection Program - Sussex County

Saturday, June 2, 2001

Southern Solid Waste Management Center

Route 20, Jones Crossroads

Hours: 8 a.m. – 3 p.m.

Citizen’s Response Line: 1-800-404-7080

 

What to bring to a collection site:

Product containers marked with the words: “Warning: Hazardous, Flammable, Poisonous, Corrosive or Explosive.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

For a complete listing of the items that will be accepted see the Delaware Solid Waste Authority website at http:// www.dswa.com

The next collection will be Saturday, July 7 in New Castle County (Delaware Recycling Center)

 

 

 

Pesticide Applicator Training Session & Exam

June 26 - 27, 2001
Delaware Department of Agriculture (302-739-4811) on Rt 13 south of Dover.

 

Day 1: training 8:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m.

Day 2: training 8:30 a.m.-Noon

Day 2: Exam starts at 1:00 p.m.

Bring your calculator for the calibration questions.

 

 


                            Weather Summary

Week of May 24 to May 31, 2001

Rainfall:

May 26: 0.60 inches

May 28: 0.10 inches

May 29: 0.03 inches

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 75°F on May 29 to 69°F on May 25, 30 and 31.

Lows Ranged from 60°F on May 28 to 44°F on May 31.

Soil Temperature:

70°F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

 

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.  It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

 

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