Volume 9, Issue 2                                                                   April 6, 2001



Vegetable Insects -  Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;  jwhalen@udel.edu



It is time to start looking for the first asparagus beetle adults on field edges. No egg laying has been observed. Edge treatments have provided effective control but only when applied before significant egg laying occurs and beetles move into the main sections of a field. Two applications are often needed for effective control. Ambush, Pounce or Sevin will provide control.


Peas, Sweet Corn and Snap Beans.

As temperatures warm up and fields dry out, you still need to consider seed corn maggot control, especially where a green cover crop is plowed under close to planting, manure is used and/or a field is minimum tilled.  A seed treatment containing diazinon or permethrin should be used on early-planted sweet corn. In fields with a high potential for seed corn maggot (combinations of the above conditions), a soil insecticide will also be needed. On all 3 crops, the use of diazinon 50W as a planter box treatment has provided the best control in recent years. Seed must be treated with a commercial fungicide; graphite may be needed to prevent bridging and you should not treat more than you plan to plant in any one-day. The diazinon 50W rate for seed corn maggot is 1/2 oz per bushel of seed.



Section 18 Label Approved for Sinbar on Watermelons; Federal Label Approved for Command on Watermelons – Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu


The EPA has granted approval of the Section 18 Emergency Label for the use of Sinbar as a preemergence weed control treatment on watermelons.  While the label is approved for use rates of 3 or 4 ounces per acre, we recommend remaining at 3 ounces, especially on the earliest planted watermelons.  Sinbar provides excellent control of many broadleaf weeds.


Command has received a full federal label for pre-emergence use on Direct Seeded Watermelons.  Five to six ounces per acre is the recommended rate.  Command will provide excellent control of many grasses and control of some broadleaf weeds, including velvetleaf.


Please refer to the label for complete details on rates, application, and related information.



Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu



We are starting to see feeding from alfalfa weevil; however, populations are lower compared to this time last year. The cooler weather compared to March of 2000 has resulted in more normal development this year. You should look for small larvae feeding in the tips of plants producing a round, pinhole type of feeding. Once you detect tip feeding, a full field sample should be taken. As a general rule, controls will be needed when you find 50% of the tips with damage. You will want to avoid treating fields too early since it may result in multiple applications. Also, be sure that you do not confuse clover leaf and alfalfa weevil larvae. Cloverleaf weevils are generally larger at this time of year and have a distinct white stripe lined with red down the middle of their backs. Although cloverleaf weevils can cause damage during cool, dry springs, controls are generally not needed for cloverleaf weevils.  When sampling for alfalfa weevil, randomly collect 30 stems throughout a field, placing them upside down in a bucket, and shaking the stems to dislodge larvae from the tips. Once alfalfa reaches 12-inches tall, the treatment threshold is one per stem. In 13 to 15-inch tall alfalfa, the threshold is 1.5 per stem. Baythroid, Furadan, Imidan or Warrior will provide control under a wide range of environmental conditions.


Field Corn.

As a result of the wet season last year and recent cool, wet weather, we can easily find slug eggs and newly hatched juveniles under surface trash. Knowledge of slug biology, conditions favoring outbreaks, scouting practices and potential management options can help reduce slug problems.


Biology of Slugs:  Most field slugs pass through a single generation per year. Although they generally overwinter in the egg stage, we can often find juveniles and adults all winter, especially if conditions are warm.  Since field slugs may live 12 to 15 months and eggs are laid both in the early spring and fall, overlapping generations of adult and juvenile stages may be observed. In the winter, adult slugs may enter a state of hibernation, and in the dry and hot summer conditions they enter a similar inactive state. A combination of one or more of the following factors favors slug outbreaks: no-tillage field crop production practices; development of dense weed cover or addition of organic matter such as manure; mild winters which increase the number of overwintering stages, especially adult slugs; prolonged periods of favorable temperatures (63 to 68 degrees) combined with evenly distributed rainfall that maintains soil moisture at 75% saturation; high pH (6.3 - 6.7); over fertilization with nitrogen and cool growing conditions which delay crop development and extend the period of susceptibility of the crop to slug injury.


Scouting for Slugs: You can identify fields with the potential for problems before planting by using a shingle or covered pit to provide a humid, sheltered hiding place for slugs. The pit should be four inches in diameter and six inches deep. An aluminum foil-covered shingle or a board can be used as a cover to provide a cool refuge from the sun. Slugs tend to congregate in large numbers in these shelters. As a rule of thumb, you can expect problems in a field if you find one to five slugs per trap. Once a field is planted, you should examine fields with a potential for damage on weekly basis. Slug damage will appear as a shredding of the leaves since they feed by grating away the surface of the plant tissue. The presence of "slime trails" can also be used to distinguish slug injury. Look for slugs under dirt clods and surface trash around 5 plants in 10 locations in a field. Since slugs are nocturnal, sampling should be done in the evening or when weather is cloudy. An application of a bait or liquid nitrogen may be needed if conditions are favorable for slug development and you find 5 or more slugs around each plant from the spike to 3-leaf stage.

Controls: Management options are limited to the use of baits and cultural practices. If a number of factors are present which favor slug development, then a combination of cultural practices and baits may be needed.  In recent years, the development of smaller pellets (often-called mini pellets) of metaldehyde baits have resulted in improved control. Research from Ohio has found that you can achieve good control with the smaller pellets even with a 3-inch rain after application. In addition, you can get good control and distribution at the 10 lbs. per acre rate of the mini-pellets. Metaldehyde baits may attract slugs from up to 3 feet away. The toxic effects of metaldehyde seem to be primarily due to dehydration. If conditions remain extremely wet, slugs sometimes can absorb enough moisture to compensate for the water lost in mucus production and therefore recover from the effects of metaldehyde. However, if slugs consume too much metaldehyde, they do not recover. Iron phosphate baits (used by organic growers) are also available but have not performed as consistently in trials in Ohio. We plan to evaluate these baits in small plot and grower fields this season.  Applications of liquid nitrogen applied soon after plant emergence can provide effective suppression if applied between midnight and 2 AM. Generally 20 gallons per acre of 30% N has been used. Nitrogen formulations containing sulfur have been reported to provide superior control. Cultural practices including the use of "pop-up" fertilizer, and trash whippers to remove residue over the seed furrow can help corn grow ahead of the damage. Most baits as well as cultural practices only reduce the slug activity buying time to enable the crop to outgrow the problem.



We have started to see the first cereal leaf beetle adults in wheat. With the predicted warmer weather, we should start seeing egg laying this week. Adults are small beetles, 5 to 6 mm in length. Although we do not spray for adults, they are a good indication that egg laying will soon begin. In recent years, the threshold for cereal leaf beetle has been adjusted to include sampling for eggs, especially in high management wheat fields. The eggs are elliptical, about 1/32 inch long, orange to yellow in color when first laid changing to a burnt orange prior to hatching. Check our website for pictures of cereal leaf beetle adults, larvae and eggs (www.udel.edu/IPM) Generally, eggs are laid singly or in small scattered groups (end-to-end) on the upper leaf surface and parallel to the leaf veins. For high management fields, the threshold is based on the presence of eggs and small larvae. Cereal leaf beetle larvae are brown to black, range in size from 1/32 to 1/4 inch long, and eat streaks of tissue from the upper leaf surface. Since cereal leaf beetle populations are often unevenly distributed within the field, it is important to carefully sample fields so that you do not over or under estimate a potential problem. Eggs and small larvae should be sampled by examining 10 tillers from 10 evenly spaced locations in the field while avoiding field edges. This will result in 100 tillers (stems) per field being examined. Eggs and larvae may be found on leaves near the ground so careful examination is critical. You can also check stems at random while walking through a major portion of the field and sampling 100 stems. In high management fields with good yield potential and/or where the potential for cereal leaf beetle problems is high, the threshold of 25 or more eggs and/or small larvae per 100 tillers should be used. If you are using this threshold, it is critical that you wait until at least 50 – 60% are in the larval stage (i.e. after 50% egg hatch). If the egg/larvae threshold is not used, the threshold of 0.5 larvae per stem and 10% defoliation can provide enough lead-time to provide good control if fields are scouted on a routine basis. Sevin will provide good control of cereal leaf beetles although experience in 1996 demonstrated that it could result in aphid explosions by reducing predator populations. Furadan provides good control; however, it cannot be applied once grain is heading. Lannate and Warrior provide good control of the entire insect complex present in small grains (cereal leaf beetles, aphids, armyworm and grass sawfly). If you are using the egg threshold, Warrior may be the best option due to its longer residual nature. Warrior is still only labeled on wheat.



Fertilizer Options: Is it Better to Manure or Not?Derby Walker, Extension Agricultural Agent; derby@udel.edu


The wise use of nutrients begins with soil and manure testing.  Because of the high price of commercial nitrogen (N) fertilizer this season, manure is a more competitive alternative product than it appeared to be last season.  However, to get the best value for your money, it needs to be incorporated into the soil as soon after application as possible to reduce potential N losses.  Although somewhat dependent on weather conditions, you can easily lose 50 percent of the available N if manure is not incorporated within four days of application.


Manure incorporation is contrary to one best management practice—no-till that reduces erosion losses, saves moisture, and reduces labor and fuel (another expensive product this season) costs.  Additionally, if you have signed up for certain cost share programs, there may be restrictions on how much tillage you are permitted to use or requirements for how much crop residue is left on the soil surface.  Because of these restrictions and the benefits derived from no-till, if your soil test recommends you only need N to grow the crop, commercial N often will be your best choice for fertilizer.


Manures not only contain N but potash (K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), and many other minor elements.  Because of this, manure will be the best product choice for fields where P and K are required according to soil test.  Remember, handling manure can be expensive, so choose land applications carefully.  Don’t waste this valuable resource on land that doesn’t need N, P, and K.  The crop of choice will be corn that will be grown on fields that are medium or lower in P and K reserves.  Since soybeans fix their own N and have not been shown to respond well to fertilizer N, manure should not be applied to land designated to grow soybeans.


As a grower the decision is yours.  You can no-till and use commercial fertilizer or you can choose manure as the fertilizer material and use tillage to incorporate this valuable resource.



New Weed Guides Available - FREE - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu


Available from your county extension office are two weed management guides for assistance in weed control in corn and soybeans.  There is a separate guide for soybeans and corn.  The first half of each guide deals with soil-applied herbicides and the second half is for postemergence herbicides.  These guides have pre-mixes and what is in the pre-mix, expanded weed control tables, information on application timing, perennial weed control, comments for each of the herbicides, and much more. 


Contact your county extension office for these free guides.  Or they can be downloaded from the REC website at http://www.rec.udel.edu/ and click on publications.  These are large files and may take a while to download. Due to size, each publication is listed in four sections.  All sections are necessary for the complete document.



Reminders On Acetochlor Use Restrictions - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu


Acetochlor is a preemergence herbicide for corn which controls annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds.  It is in the following products: Harness, Harness Extra, Degree, Degree Extra, Topnotch, and Fultime.  There are restrictions that are important in our area.  The restrictions pertain to groundwater quality.  The restrictions are based on depth of groundwater within one month of planting and the combination of soil type and organic matter.  Do not apply acetochlor if the groundwater depth is 30 feet and you have sands with less than 3% organic matter, or loamy sands with less than 2% organic matter, or sandy loam with less than 1% organic matter.



New Corn Products for 2001 and Industry News - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu


BASF acquired American Cyanamid crop production business.  All Cyanamid products (Prowl, Pursuit, Scepter, Raptor, Lightning, Steel, etc.) are now marketed and supported by BASF.


Syngenta is the merger of the Ag divisions of Novartis and Zeneca and was established November 2000.  All of the herbicide products and services from the two former companies now will be under Syngenta except the acetochlor products which were sold to Dow AgroSciences.


Glyphosate products.  A number of new glyphosate containing products will be available in 2001 and over the next several years.  Monsanto’s Roundup patent expired in late September 2000.  Be cautious, different formulations are available and NOT ALL glyphosate products are labeled for use over Roundup Ready crops.  Roundup Ultra MAX 5L (Monsanto).  Ultra Max is a more concentrated (5 lb ai/gal) isopropylamine glyphosate product but is essentially the same as Roundup Ultra 4L.  Use rates with UltraMax are lower than with Ultra.  UltraMax can be used in the same situations as Ultra.  Touchdown IQ 4L (Syngenta) is a new formulation of glyphosate as a 4 lb ai/gal.  Touchdown IQ contains the active ingredient diammonium glyphosate plus special adjuvants (termed IQ Technology).  Like Roundup Ultra, Touchdown IQ is a broad-spectrum herbicide and can be applied over Roundup Ready soybeans and corn.  The common use rate will be 1 qt/A.  The IQ formulation does not cause the speckling on soybeans, which sometimes occurred with the old Touchdown 5 (sulfosate).  Glyphomax and Glyphomax Plus (Dow AgroSciences) are an isoproplyamine glyphosate in a 4 lb ai/gal.  Glyphomax Plus contains an adjuvant and is labeled for over the top application on Roundup Ready soybeans and corn.  Note the product Glyphomax does not have adjuvants added.  Common use rate will be 1 qt/A.


Define 60DF (Aventis/Bayer) is the single active ingredient of flufenacet (which is contained in Axiom and Domain).  Define is similar to Dual, Micro-Tech, Harness, Frontier, etc., and provides preemergence control of many annual grasses.  Define as a single ingredient has not been in our trials in past years, so we have little experience with this product.


Degree 3.8CS (Monsanto) contains the same active ingredient as Harness but is a new encapsulated formulation of acetochlor designed to extend soil-residual control of annual grass species.  The release of acetochlor from the encapsulation is supposed to be triggered primarily by soil temperature.  As the soil temperature warms up, the product becomes available to control weeds, while under cold conditions, it remains unavailable.  We have limited experience on its performance in Delaware.


Degree Xtra 4.04EC (Monsanto) is a premix of Degree (encapsulated acetochlor) and atrazine.  It will provide preemergence control of annual grasses and broadleaves.


Hornet (Dow AgroSciences) will be reformulated as Hornet 68.5WDG instead of Hornet 85.6WG.  The new use rates for Hornet WDG will be 2 to 6 oz/A.  Be aware of which product you use since both will likely be available until old formulation stocks are depleted.


Outlook 6EC (BASF) contains dimethenamid-p which is the more active isomer of dimethenamid (Frontier, Guardsman, and LeadOff).  Since it is more active, the use rates will be lower by approximately 55%.  Outlook controls the same weed spectrum as Frontier; providing good control of annual grasses, some broadleaves and nutsedge.


Pendimax 3.3EC (Dow AgroSciences) contains pendimethalin, the same active ingredient in Prowl.  Its label and uses are very similar to that of Prowl.  Pendimax can also be used in soybean.


ReadyMaster ATZ 4L (Monsanto) is a premix of glyphosate and atrazine for postemergence application to Roundup Ready corn.  The formulation contains 2 lb ai/gal. each of glyphosate and atrazine.  Use rates will range from 1.5 to 2 qt/A.


Pinnacle 25DF (DuPont) can now be applied to 2 to 6 leaf corn (up to 12 inches tall).  Pinnacle provides excellent control of lambsquarter and pigweed (including triazine resistant).  In “Clarity-sensitive areas”, it can be a good alternative.  There are precautions on the label about use with Counter due to crop injury (see label).



Nutrient Management Update -  Dave Hansen, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist;  djhansen@udel.edu

Nutrient Management Certification classes are off to a great start.  These classes are required by Title 3, Chapter 22 of the Delaware Code which states that operators of animal facilities larger than eight animal units, and individuals that apply nutrients to more than ten acres of land, must be certified by the Nutrient Management Program. 


There are four different levels of certification: Nutrient Generator, Private Nutrient Handler, Commercial Nutrient Handler, and Nutrient Consultant.  Each level has specific requirements in terms of number of classes, continuing education credits, etc.  This certification must be completed by January 1, 2004.


The University of Delaware began offering certification classes on January 26.  As of April 3, approximately 1100 people have attended the first 3-credit session, and 700 people have attended the second session.  Classes are not planned for this summer, but will be offered again in the fall.  Dates will be posted on the Nutrient Management website (http://www.rec.udel.edu/nutrient/index.html and advertised in the Delmarva Farmer.  For further information, please contact Cooperative Extension at 302-856-7303, or the Nutrient Management Program at 302-739-4811.



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Seasonal Price Bounce Likely to be Minimal

With the advent of the spring planting season we can generally expect a seasonal bounce in commodity prices. This year that bounce is expected to be minimal at best. Several factors enter the picture as we take an overall look at some of the news that commodity markets are presently contending with. On the negative side of the equation the potential spread of animal disease e.g., Foot and Mouth disease, and the 'plane collision' incident with China are factors that are currently weighing on traders minds. Late last week, a reported case of an alleged animal disease that proved to be negative sent the commodity markets spiraling south on the day. The alleged case turned out to be negative and the markets returned to normal on Monday. Markets are likely to remain skittish over this issue, at least until enough negative results are compiled to assure traders that there is nothing to worry about. The plane collision, involving the U.S. and China, has traders cautiously optimistic that China will go ahead on receiving nearly 500,000 bushels of U.S. soybeans that are on the books for shipment.


On a positive note U.S. farmers reported that they intend to plant 76.69 million acres of corn, a reduction of 2.85 million acres from last year. This anticipated cut in U.S. corn acreage was larger than trade expectations. Additionally, field work in many areas across the U.S. is currently running about two weeks behind progress made at this time last year.


Record Soybean Acreage Keeps Lid on Prices

Planted acreage of U.S. soybeans was estimated at 76.65 million acres in the March 30th Planting Intentions and Stocks Report, slightly over 2 million acres more than last season's planted acreage. U.S. soybean acreage is reportedly at an all time record high. When combined with a record crop in South America, soybean prices are not expected to increase much above current levels, if at all.


March 1 stocks of U.S. corn, soybeans, and wheat were said to have an insignificant impact upon commodity prices.


Marketing Strategy

The current market situation places farmers in a 'sit back and wait see what happens mode'. Corn and soybean prices have recovered slightly this week, yet are currently 12 to 60 cents per bushel less than they were at the first of the year, respectively. The Delaware loan rates for corn ($2.10), soybeans ($5.36), and wheat ($2.67) remain unchanged from last year. Ideally, we'd like to see CBT prices at $2.50 per bushel for corn, $5.00 per bushel for soybeans, and $3.00 per bushel for wheat before making further sales for corn and wheat, and only taking price protection on soybeans. Do not make forward cash sales for corn, wheat, or soybeans below the loan rate.



Cutting Management on Alfalfa - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist; rtaylor@udel.edu


In a recent conversation with Dr. Ed Jones of Delaware State University, Dr. Jones indicated that the best cutting schedule for alfalfa is a 32-day interval beginning with the first harvest at the late bud stage of growth.  This is based on extensive research conducted over the past decade.  Soil fertility levels should be maintained in the optimum range and disease resistant cultivars should be used.  Do not harvest earlier than 32 days to keep stands healthy.


For dryland alfalfa, late summer heat and dry weather can cause poor regrowth and early flowering on August regrowth.  This initial growth may be inadequate to justify a harvest and a second regrowth may occur.  To keep the stand healthy, do not cut based on either regrowth height or the strict 32-day schedule.  Instead, observe when the second regrowth begins and harvest based on allowing 32 days for the second flush to grow.


A second management item involves fall cutting.  First harvest alfalfa often is difficult to cure because of the large amount of biomass alfalfa produces in the spring.  First harvest tonnage can be reduced making it easier to cure and handle, if a fall cutting is taken.  Dr. Jones has found that the amount removed in the fall is almost exactly reflected by a similar reduction in first harvest yield.  He reports that alfalfa can be harvested one time during September or October without detrimental effects if the total management plan reduces contributing stresses and the stand does not show signs of low vigor.



Are You Irrigating Without a Water Allocation?Derby Walker, Extension Agricultural Agent; derby@udel.edu


The state of Delaware has been fortunate to have an abundant water supply.  However, as urban pressure increases in the state, it becomes crucial for agricultural businesses in the state to have a water allocation permit. Without this form, you don’t have a record of your water use. It is possible that agricultural operations could lose there rights to pump water if someone obtains a large allocation next to you, even if they put their well or pump in years after you. Operations need water allocations for all their sources of water, including ponds, streams, tax ditches, and wells.


The State allocates the water supply to prevent it from being depleted. The State has mapped the water supplies of the State and has determined how many gallons can be removed (daily, monthly and yearly) in that area without permanent damage to the water source.


Allocations are given on a first come first serve system. When the water allocation for that area is given out, no new water users can be added.   If you are irrigating without a water allocation, do not put off applying for your allocation. There will be greater demands for water as more people move here, as industries expand and as more growers add more irrigation. Protect your farm business by obtaining a water allocation today.


Contact Patty Murray, Environmental Scientist, at 739-4793 or email: pemurray@dnrec.state.de.us and she can help you obtain your allocations by completing a simple form. Forms can be mailed or faxed to her office.



Update on Foot and Mouth Disease -

Limin Kung, Jr., Professor,Ruminant Nutrition and Microbiology, University of Delaware; lkung@udel.edu

Gordon C. Johnson, Extension Agricultural Agent; gcjohn@udel.edu




What is Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)? 

Foot and mouth disease is not a significant human health problem but it is highly contagious to animals. Animals infected include cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats.  Wild cloven hooved animals such as deer are also susceptible.  The disease, which is caused by a virus, is characterized by fever and blister-like lesions on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats, and between the hooves. Many affected animals recover, but the disease leaves them debilitated. It causes severe losses in the production of meat and milk.


The outbreak has been worse in the UK but has spread to France, the Netherlands, the Mid-East, South America, and possibly Germany.  In the UK alone over 600,000 animals have been slaughtered with another 400,000 in line!  To date 960 separate outbreaks of the disease have been confirmed in the U.K.


How contagious is FMD? 

The FMD virus is easily spread by foot traffic, clothing, personal items, and air.  The virus can remain viable for up to 9 weeks on clothes and shoes, especially if they are soiled with mud or manure.  (Humans can also carry the virus in their respiratory track for up to 5 days post exposure however the risk of transmission is small.)  The incubation period for the disease is relatively long and allows for transmission of the virus before animals develop signs of the disease.


What are the University of Delaware (UD) and others doing to protect their farms? 

University farms are at very high risk because they are open to the public.  In addition, students and faculty frequently travel abroad.  The UD farm and other university farms are currently under restricted access to only required delivery and maintenance vehicles.  These vehicles will be power washed with a disinfectant prior to entry onto the farm.  We are also restricting entry to only faculty, staff, and students that require access for research or teaching purposes.  When on farm, all persons will be required to pass through a disinfecting foot bath and wear disposable coveralls and boots.  No persons (including students) who have traveled internationally or visitors from abroad will be allowed on farm.


As for animal movement, no outside animals will be allowed on site.  We are also not allowing our farm animals or animals from any external source to be brought to our Spring Ag Day event.


We also know that many agricultural companies have canceled business trips to Europe, many field days have been canceled, and most European farm tours have been canceled.


What can I do to protect my farm? 

This is a good time to review your farms biosecurity plans.  The following are some suggestions:


a)     Restrict access to your farm to only necessary vehicles and people.

b)      Have all visitors check in at a central location where a boot wash and disposable boots are available for use.

c)      Especially restrict access by any persons (including friends and relatives) who have been on farms in Europe.

d)      Restrict movement of animals to and from the farm.  This includes any event where animals from many farms would gather

e)      Use caution if you have plans to travel abroad.  Limit your exposure to animals and farm environments.

* It is illegal to return with meat, milk, or fruit products.



*What should I do if I do travel abroad? Before returning to the U.S.:


1)  It is advised that all clothing be well laundered or dry cleaned and shoes thoroughly disinfected1, before return to the U.S.  Shoes should be free of manure and dirt!  Dispose of them before you come home if you think they have been contaminated.


2)  Clean personal items such as watches, cameras, cell phones, luggage and allow to dry.  The virus cannot survive on clean and dry surfaces.


3)  Shower, shampoo, and gargle with disinfectant mouthwash, after returning to the U.S.


1The FMD virus is killed using a 0.1% bleach solution (1 ounce of bleach per gallon of water).  If the area to be disinfected is heavily soiled use 2.5 ounces of bleach per gallon of water.


After returning to the U.S.:


Upon return to the U.S. from abroad, it is advised that persons avoid contact with livestock, wildlife, zoos, and persons associated with the livestock industry for 10 days.  (This follows present USDA guidelines)



More information on FMD can be found at:











Dr. Wes Towers, Delaware State Veterinarian, has agreed to take all calls regarding FMD at 302-739-4811 or 1-800-282-8685.


Foot and Mouth Disease Hotline for USDA:



They will answer questions from the industry and media.





                       Weather Summary

Weeks of March 23 to April 4


0.16 inches: March 26

0.65 inches: March 29

0.23 inches: March 30

0.01 inches: March 31

0.02 inches: April 1

0.05 inches: April 2

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 65°F on March 24 to 38° F on March 26.

Lows Ranged from 42°F on March 23 to 22° F on March 27.

Soil Temperature:

46°F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.  It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

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