Volume 9, Issue 24                                                                    September 7, 2001


Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu


Lima Beans.

Earworm populations continue to increase mainly because of the attractiveness of the flowering plants. A treatment should be applied if you find one corn earworm per 6 foot of row. If Lannate LV is used, you will need 2-3 pts/acre since a mixture of worm sizes can be found. Capture will also provide good control at the 3-oz/acre rate. If stinkbugs and lygus are present, you will need to increase the rate to 3.5 to 4 oz/acre.



At the present time, all peppers should be sprayed on a 5-7-day schedule for corn borer and corn earworm control.


Snap Beans.

We have had a few reports from Virginia and Delaware were lesser corn stalk borer has been found boring into plants below the soil line, moving up the main stem and then exiting at the first petiole. A silk tube is often formed between the entrance hole and the soil. In most cases, the plant is killed. Damage is most prevalent in crops grown on sandy soils during dry conditions.


The lesser cornstalk borer is recognized by having alternate bands of purple and blue/green encircling its body. Small 3/4-inch larvae may be found tunneling into the stem of the plant. When disturbed, the larva wiggles violently. Unfortunately, rescue treatments are not effective for this pest. At planting, insecticides used in field corn provide effective control. Damage can be reduced significantly by killing or eliminating weeds two weeks before planting.



In processing snap beans, small corn borer can be found in the petioles of plants before buds are present. Since these larvae can kill small plants, a treatment may be needed in the prebud stage. Orthene will provide control of larvae found in the petiole; however, it will not work if larvae have moved into the main stem. If an Orthene spray is applied pre-bud, a second application with Capture should be applied at full bud and a third with Orthene plus Capture or Asana at the pin stage. If earworm pressure continues, you will need one - two sprays with Asana, Capture or Lannate between the pin spray and harvest for a combination of corn borer and corn earworm control. All fresh market snap beans should be sprayed from the pin stage until harvest on a 5-7-day schedule with Lannate or Capture.


Sweet Corn.

All fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2-3-day schedule throughout the state.



Lima BeanDisease, Insect and Crop Management Workshop


Also Updates on the Lima Bean Industry Nationally and Production and Processing on Delmarva


Date: Monday, September 10, 2001

Time: 5:00 7:00 p.m.

Refreshments will be provided.

Place: Charles West Farms, Between Frederica & Milford, DE Meet at the farm parking lot.

Who Should Come: Lima Bean Growers and their employees, Processors & Fieldmen, Consultants & Scouts, and Agribusiness Personnel.



The University of Delaware Cooperative Extension Service is offering a special invitation to lima bean growers and those who work with lima beans to attend a disease, insect, and crop management workshop at Charles West Farms on Monday, September 10, 2001, from 5:00 to 7:00 PM. We will scout nearby lima bean fields; explore disease, insect, and weed biology; and discuss control strategies. In addition, we will examine cultural practices and other crop management considerations for successful lima bean production. An additional topic will be the lima bean industry nationally and the future of the lima bean industry on Delmarva. On hand will be University of Delaware Specialists including Bob Mulrooney, Ed Kee, and Joanne Whalen to answer questions.

Phone (302) 697-4000 if you will be attending.


Gordon Johnson, Extension Agriculture Agent, Kent County



Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu


MELCAST for Watermelons

EFI Values (Environmental Favorability Index)

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Any questions, please call David Armentrout at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: da88@umail.umd.edu






Bridgeville, DE




Laurel, DE

(Collins Farms)




Galestown, MD




Georgetown, DE




Hebron, MD




Salisbury, MD




Laurel, DE

(Vincent Farms)




Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day


More detailed information concerning MELCAST and sample data sheets are available on the web at http://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/vegdisease/vegdisease.htm. . v


This will be the last MELCAST UPDATE for the 2001 Season



Field Crops


Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



We are still finding an occasional earworm in many fields, but only a rare field has reached threshold levels. Reports are similar from the Eastern Shore of Virginia. If we do not see an increase in populations by September 15, it is unlikely that economic levels will develop. Weather factors and overall lower trap catches compared to this time last year have resulted in low populations. In addition, you can find high numbers of parasites and predators that feed on earworm eggs and small larvae. You should continue to watch for defoliators in late-planted beans. Green cloverworm and painted lady larvae are still present in many fields. During the pod-fill stage, a treatment is needed if you find 15% defoliation.



Corn Hybrid Twilight Field Day
Date: Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Time: 5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Place: UD Corn Research Plots, Pratt Farm, Smyrna.
Directions: From Rt. 13, head east on the Smyrna-Leipsic Road, go about mile. Farm is on the left.  Signs will be posted.
Dinner: Dinner will be provided

All corn producers are invited to attend our Corn Hybrid Field Day at the University of Delaware Corn Research Plots near Smyrna. The Scuse's are our cooperating farmers for these trials.  You will get to see a large number of varieties from many companies side by side.  In addition, UD Corn Breeders and Extension Crop and Pest specialists will be on hand to talk about the research they do and critical considerations with growing corn in DE.  Pesticide and CCA credits will be given.

Phone 302-697-4000 or 302-831-2506 to register by September10. Anyone interested is welcome to attend. For more information or special needs to attend this meeting, phone ahead of time.



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Private Forecasters Estimate 2001 U.S. Corn and Soybean Crops
With just five days to go before the release of USDA's September 12th supply and demand estimates, several private forecasters have weighed in with their own production estimates for this year's crops. The most recent forecasts to enter the till were released just this morning, placing the size of the U.S. corn crop at 9.204 billion bushels, and 9.148 billion bushels, respectively. Previous corn production estimates were placed at 8.992 billion bushels, and 8.79 to 8.9 billion bushels, putting the range in estimates from 8.79 to 9.2 billion bushels. For soybeans, the forecasts are placed at 2.867 billion bushels, 2.823 billion bushels, 2.743 billion bushels, and 2.69 to 2.78 billion bushels, putting the range in estimates from 2.69 to 2.867 billion bushels.

USDA's August projections placed U.S. corn production at 9.266 billion bushels and soybean production at 2.867 billion bushels. Last year the U.S. produced 9.96 billion bushels of corn and 2.77 billion bushels of soybeans.

The high end of the private estimates for U.S. corn, based upon September 1 conditions, is 62 million bushels less than USDA's August estimate. The high end of the private estimates for U.S. soybeans is the same as USDA's August estimate.

General Comments
Commodity traders are expecting lower production estimates to be forthcoming in USDA's September crop production report, to be released at 0730 CT on Wednesday, September 12th. Even so, the variability in crop maturity and in crop conditions across the nation has put a higher level of uncertainty into forecasting the size of the crop and the bidding of commodity prices at this point in time. If the lower estimates are realized then both the corn and soybean markets will likely see some pricing opportunities develop as a result. Further forward cash sales for new crop production should be placed on hold at this juncture. Any opportunity to lock the basis at favorable levels, before harvest pressure sets in and the basis for harvest delivery weakens, should be taken.





Lima BeanDisease, Insect and Crop Management Workshop

Date: Monday, September 10, 2001

Time: 5:00 7:00 p.m.

Place: Charles West Farms, Between Frederica & Milford, DE Meet at the farm parking lot. Phone 302-697-4000 for more information.


Corn Hybrid Twilight Field Day

Date: Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Time: 5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Place: UD Corn Research Plots, Pratt Farm, Smyrna.
Phone 302-697-4000 or 302-831-2506 to register by September 10, and for more information on the meeting.


Pesticide Container Recycling

Date: September 20, 2001

Location: Sussex Conservation District Maintenance Yard

Shortly Road, Georgetown

Time: Collections from 9:30 am 1:30 pm

Free of Charge!

All containers must be properly rinsed.

More Information: Call DDA at 302-739-4811 or 1-800-282-8685.


Weather Summary

Week of August 31 to September 6, 2001



0.26 inches: September 4


Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 84F on August 31 to 77F on September 2.

Lows Ranged from 71F on August 31 to 54F on September 3.

Soil Temperature:

78F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:



Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.