Volume 9, Issue 26 September 21, 2001



Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu


Lima Beans.

Small corn earworm larvae can still be found in late-planted fields. This week's warmer weather has resulted in extended egg laying. Therefore, fields should be checked for larvae through the end of September.



All peppers should be sprayed on a 7-10 day schedule for the remainder of the season.


Snap Beans.

Corn borer and corn earworm moths continue to be found laying eggs in snap bean fields. Processing snap beans should still be sprayed at the bud stage for corn borer control and at the pin stage for corn earworm and corn borer control. After the pin spray, one additional spray will be needed 5 -7 days from harvest.


Sweet Corn.

All fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-day schedule for the remainder of the season.



Field Crops


Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



From plant emergence until 60 days after emergence, wheat should be sampled for aphids. It still appears that the economic value of fall spraying for aphids in wheat is dependent on the aphid population level and the amount of barley yellow dwarf present in an area. When making a treatment decision, the following factors can increase the potential of a return from a fall application of an insecticide to control aphids and to reduce barley yellow dwarf (BYD) infection:

        Normal summer temperatures with adequate rainfall

        Intensive wheat management, high fertility, etc.

        Use of BYD susceptible varieties.

        Planting before the Hessian fly free date

        Late, warm fall

        Aphid numbers greater than treatment guidelines We are still using a threshold for fall treatment for aphids of 15-20 aphids per foot of row in combination with a known history of BYDV.


One exception to the above threshold is when greenbugs are present. This aphid species can cause direct damage to wheat. Greenbugs inject a toxin into plants, which appears as yellowish spots or patches on the leaves. Economic levels were found in a number of wheat fields in Dorchester County, Maryland last season. This aphid is easy to distinguish from other aphids found in wheat. The body is green to yellow-green with a dark green stripe down the middle of its back. If greenbug is the predominant aphid species, a threshold of 3-5 aphids per foot of row should be used.



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


U. S. 2001 Corn and Soybean Harvest Well Underway
Since the beginning of the U.S. harvest, there has been a general feeling among grain market analysts that commodity prices have got to climb. However, a few things have greatly interfered with this general prognosis, one of which was the September 14th release of USDA's Supply and Demand Report for U.S. corn and soybeans. In that report, 2001 U.S. corn and soybean production was reduced, as well as ending carryover estimates, although not nearly as much as the trade had suggested was necessary to see significant price rallies in both commodities. The corn production estimate, placed at 9.238 billion bushels, was only 28 million bushels less than the August estimate, well above the average of pre report analysts estimates. The soybean production estimate, placed at 2.834 billion bushels, was only 33 million bushels below the August estimate, also slightly above the pre report estimates. What this means is the commodities market did not get the numbers that it was looking for for an early harvest rally to occur. Simultaneously, world events and the direct impact upon the U.S. economy have hampered the commodity markets from trading solely on the merits of the supply and demand balance sheets. Uncertainty in the commodity markets, is likely to continue to be a problem for some time to come, at least until we get a better handle on what were up against and what it will take for the U.S. and the world to get the job done.

Marketing Strategy
The uncertainty facing the U.S. economy is likely to have a very real negative impact upon harvest time marketing decisions. If we were in the midwest right now, where soybean harvest is occurring, we'd likely be selling cash beans, taking advantage of the large deficiency payments, and buying staying power in the market with the use of either $4.80 or $5.20 call options, depending upon our objective for maintaining staying power in the market. Here on the Eastern Shore, where corn harvest is getting underway we are looking at basis levels of maybe even to 5 over, a $2.16 per bushel December futures price, the likelihood of little to no deficiency payment, little to no carrying charge being reflected in the market, and a 50/50 chance of deciding whether cash grain storage will pay. If we revisit the change in the carryover estimate for corn, we note that it was placed at 1.361 billion bushels in the September estimate, only a 98 million bushel reduction from the August report. Those with forward contracts, should proceed filling them first, with the hope of some improvement in corn harvest prices before unpriced corn is harvested. Those with on farm storage and unpriced corn are going to need to consider placing corn under the loan at $2.10 per bushel. Others, may decide to take the cash sale, looking toward the March or May $2.30 call options for market staying power, currently costing 9 cents per bushel.









Basic Considerations For Establishing and Maintaining a Grass Hay Field or Pasture



Date: Saturday, September 29, 2001

Rain Date: Saturday, October 6, 2001


Call (302) 831-8860 between 8:00 and 9:00 a.m. on September 29 for a recorded message if

weather is inclement. If necessary to move meeting to October 6 date and weather is again

inclement, we will meet at 910 South Chapel Street, across from the old Caldor Store in the Pencader Plaza Shopping Center for a classroom session. Call as above for a recorded message.

Time: 9:30 AM 12:00 Noon


Location: University of Delaware Farm, Rt. 896, Newark, DE.


Registration: Phone (302) 831-2506 by Wednesday, September 26, if you plan to attend. This will help us plan for handouts, etc.


Directions: From 896 (S. College Ave.), enter UD Farm from north entrance to Townsend Hall (at traffic light closest to bridge over railroad and directly across from Chrysler Parts Depot). Make an immediate left at first STOP sign. Road curves to the right as it passes Girl Scout Headquarters (on the left) and then passes several farm buildings. Continue straight on gravel road approximately 500 yds. Hay and pasture demonstration plots will be on your right (inside wire fence).


Purpose: If you are managing an existing grass hay field or pasture, or are considering establishment or renovation and need help with the basics, or just need a refresher, this workshop is for you!


Topics: In-field identification and characteristics of various grass species; comparative advantages/disadvantages; and effects of planting methods, timing (spring vs. fall), and seeding rate.


There will also be a brief update on the Delaware Nutrient Management Program and how it affects you.


Please share this information with your interested friends.


This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome. For more information, or for special consideration in accessing this meeting, please contact the Extension Office at 831-COOP (2667).



Carl P. Davis

Extension Agent, Agriculture





Pumpkin Twilight Tour

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Date:September 26, 2001

Location: University of Maryland Wye Research and Education Center, Queenstown, Maryland

Time: 4:30-7:30 p.m.


Speakers: (To Begin at 5:30)

Kate Everts, Bob Rouse, Chuck McClurg, Caragh Fitzgerald and Mike Newell- University of Maryland

What You Will See: 24 varieties of pumpkins; no-till on vetch; sprayed and non-sprayed; plus an additional trial of direct seeded with an organic fungicide program.

More Information: Contact Bob Rouse at 410-827-8056.





http://www.udel.edu/pesticide/Cal.htm#annual conf
Pesticides and the Public:  How Applicators Can Respond To Public Concern With Pesticide Use.


Date: Thursday, January 17, 2002
Location: Modern Maturity Center, 1121 Forrest Avenue, Rt. 8, Dover DE

This year's conference will be held in conjunction with the Delaware Horticulture Industry Expo.  Topics will be "IPM in Schools," "What Lessons Have We Learned From Star Link Corn?" and "Risk Communication."
Afternoon break-out sessions will present new information in Agriculture, Turf & Ornamental, and Structural Pest Control.
Recertification credits will be awarded in all applicator categories.




Next Week Will Be the Final Issue for Weekly Crop Update 2001.




Weather Summary

Week of September 14 to September 20, 2001



0.15 inches: September 14


Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 79F on September 18 to 64F on September 14.

Lows Ranged from 51F on September 19 to 46F on September 16.

Soil Temperature:

67F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

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Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.