Volume 14, Issue 25                                                                      September 15, 2006

Last Issue of Weekly Crop Update for 2006 - Emmalea Ernest, Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops; emmalea@udel.edu


This is the last issue of Weekly Crop Update for the 2006 season. I hope that this newsletter has been a useful resource for you throughout the past six months. My thanks to the individuals who have contributed articles this year and to our office staff at the REC, who make sure the WCU gets to our fax and mail subscribers.


As editor of WCU, I appreciate your comments and suggestions for improvement of this publication. You can contact me at the email address above.


Best wishes for a safe and prosperous fall harvest season. I look forward to seeing many of you at meetings this winter.


Kind regards,





Soybean Rust Update



Last minute report: Soybean rust is detected in NC.

Asiatic soybean rust was identified on soybean samples collected from a mobile sentinel plot on 13 September, 2006.  A few pustules were found on several leaves.  The soybean leaves were collected from near Tabor City in Columbus County.  Columbus County borders on South Carolina and is about 50 miles from Myrtle Beach, SC.


This will be the last soybean rust report for WCU and so far soybean rust has not been found north of South Carolina. There were an additional 10 detections in South Carolina and it may move farther north in the coming weeks. Fungicides are being applied to protect soybeans that are vulnerable to soybean rust in SC and other southern states, which is keeping the spore levels low. Fortunately most of the Delmarva full season crop is past being affected by soybean rust. Beans that have reached R6 should not be impacted if soybean rust were to appear at this time. To date only kudzu and soybeans have been infected. There is no reason to apply fungicides to soybeans for soybean rust at the present time. Continue to check late season soybeans and double crop beans that are in the R3-R5 growth stages. Current conditions are favorable for infection if the fungus spores were to arrive. Our late season sentinel plot soybeans and the remaining Soybean Board sponsored grower fields are continuing to be monitored each week and will be until there are no green leaves left. I wanted to thank all our cooperators that have allowed us to monitor their fields and acknowledge the support that Extension, the Delaware Dept. of Ag and USDA have received from growers and the soybean industry for our soybean rust and soybean aphid detection and control programs. If anything should change concerning soybean rust, we will be contacting the farm community through the county Extension offices, the media and email lists.



Bob Mulrooney





Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Continue to scout all fields for beet armyworm, fall armyworm, diamondback and cabbage looper larvae. Once heads begin to form, a treatment should be applied when 5% of the plants are infested.


Lima Beans

Continue to scout all fields for lygus bugs, stinkbugs, corn earworm, fall armyworm and beet armyworm.



Be sure to maintain a 5 to 7-day spray schedule for corn borer, corn earworm, beet armyworm and fall armyworm control. You should also watch for flares in aphid populations.


Snap Beans

All fresh market and processing snap beans will need to be sprayed from the bud stage through harvest for corn borer and corn earworm control. In addition, the highest labeled rates may be needed if population pressure is heavy in your area.



Continue to sample emerged fields for webworm and beet armyworm larvae. We can now find both species in spinach fields. Controls should be applied when worms are small and before webbing occurs. Generally, at least 2 applications may be needed to achieve control of webworms and beet armyworm. If both species are present, Intrepid or Confirm are labeled for both species.


Sweet Corn

Fresh market, silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2 to 3-day schedule for the remainder of the season.



Vegetable Crop Diseases Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu


Lima Beans

To date we have not seen downy mildew on limas. With the wet, cooler weather recently we have identified anthracnose on limas. On our research plots in Newark it was infecting young racemes, causing some wilting of those infected racemes. Usually anthracnose is not thought to be yield limiting here, but I do not have any good data to support a statement that it does not cause yield loss. The levels of infections that I have seen in several commercial fields recently should not be yield limiting.


Irregular reddish purple spots on upper surface of infected baby lima bean.


Another symptom of anthracnose infection is the reddish purple discoloration of the veins on the underside of the infected leaves.


Nematodes in Veggies

Fall is the best time to soil sample for nematode pests such as root knot, lesion, and other plant parasitic nematodes. After fall harvest, but before any fall tillage is done, take soil cores six inches deep between plants in the row. Samples should be taken in the root zone of the old crop. Twenty cores/samples should be taken from random spots in the field and placed in a plastic bucket, gently mixed, and a pint of soil submitted for analysis. Nematode test bags and instructions are available for purchase from the county Extension offices. Samples cost $10.00. Fall sampling for root knot nematodes is strongly recommended for fields that will be planted in cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupes, lima beans or other high value vegetables where root knot could reduce production. Forms and instructions are also available on the web at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/index.htm


Fall Sanitation

In vegetable production it is not a good idea to leave old crop residue in the field any longer than necessary. If the crop is allowed to survive after harvest, fungi that cause many diseases continue to increase on the surviving plants. This allows higher numbers of the fungus to potentially survive until next season. Sanitation (plowing or disking the old crop) will help prevent pathogen carry-over.



Agronomic Crops


Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Continue to sample fields on a weekly basis for leafhopper adults and nymphs as well as defoliators, including earworm, webworms and fall armyworms.



In general, the decision to treat for corn earworms should have been made by now. If you have not scouted, be sure to check the latest planted fields. We have also started to find diseased worms so be sure to look for diseased worms before making a treatment decision.


In order to address the effectiveness of pyrethroids for corn earworm control in soybeans this season, the following information was written by Dr. Tom Kuhar from VPI in their recent Virginia Ag Pest Advisory:


“Over the past couple of weeks, there were a few reports of unusually high corn earworm survival following pyrethroid applications on soybeans on the Delmarva Peninsula. The following assays were done to help address the question of potential pyrethroid resistance in our CEW populations. Bottom line, we detected no sign of resistance to pyrethroids in the corn earwom populations that we collected from Northampton Co., VA. In addition, one of our employees recently sprayed a heavily-infested soybean field with Warrior at 2.5 fl oz/A and got probably 95% kill of CEW after 4 days. Insecticide spray failures can be the result of numerous other factors (described in previous articles). Such factors might include: inadequate spray coverage, spraying in hot temperatures, rainfall, spraying too late, assessing kill too soon after spraying, etc...” Please use the following link and click “More” to access his report (http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/).


Small Grains

As you make plans for small grain planting, you should consider the following factors when making a treatment decision for aphids. In general, cooler summer temperatures with adequate rainfall followed by a warm, dry fall are conditions that favor aphid development in small grains, especially in early planted fields. Early fall infestations of the greenbug aphid (which causes direct damage to small grains) are favored by cool, late summer conditions.


Factors that increase the potential of a return from applying an insecticide to control aphids and to reduce barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) infection in wheat include:

Ønormal-cool summer temperatures with adequate rainfall

Øintensive wheat management including high fertility

Øuse of BYDV susceptible varieties

Øplanting before the Hessian fly free date

Øa late, warm fall


The potential for viral transmission is impossible to predict. Two seed applied materials, Gaucho and Cruiser, are available as a preventative treatment for aphid control in wheat and barley. If you have a history of aphids transmitting viruses in the fall and you plan to scout for aphids, as a general guideline a foliar treatment should be considered if you find 10 aphids (especially winged forms) per linear foot of row. However, it should also be noted that in states to our south where BYDV is more prevalent, they are using thresholds as low as 3 per foot of row or in some cases do not feel comfortable with any threshold. Direct damage from greenbug aphid has also been an issue in recent years. If you are able to scout, be sure you plan to sample your fields at emergence. Although we do not have any thresholds developed in our area for greenbug, thresholds from areas to the south say a treatment will be needed in the fall if you find 10 aphids per foot of row.


Foliar materials labeled for aphid control in wheat include dimethoate, Lannate, malathion, Mustang MAX, Penncap-M and Warrior. The materials labeled for barley include Lannate, malathion and Penncap-M. The Warrior label says 3.84 oz/acre are needed for greenbug aphid and the Mustang label states only aids in control of greenbug aphids. Remember that these pyrethroids are only labeled on wheat.



Agronomic Crop Diseases Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu


Small Grains

Be sure that you plant wheat varieties with high levels of disease resistance. Select varieties with high levels of resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust and stripe rust. The lack of diseases in small grains last year was very unusual so do not let your guard down when planning your disease control program for 2007. Seed should be treated with Baytan, Raxil or Dividend to protect plants from loose smut and common bunt. Varieties that are susceptible to powdery mildew should be treated with Baytan or another seed treatment that will protect them from early infection.



Do not ignore soybean cyst nematode. Soil sampling after harvest before any fall tillage is recommended for fields to be planted next season to soybeans following this year’s crop. Do not plant SCN susceptible varieties without soil testing first. Soil sample bags are available from the county Extension offices for $10/ sample bag.


Septoria leafspot, downy mildew, and some Frog-eye (Cercospora) leafspot are still evident on late beans. Most levels that I have seen should not limit yield in any way.



Corn harvest is underway so be sure to check corn fields for lodging potential by squeezing the lower nodes or pushing on the stalks. A simple way to do this is to walk through the field and, keeping your hands at chest height, push stalks 8-10 inches from vertical. If 10-15% of the stalks lodge, schedule the field for early harvest before a strong wind results in severe lodging.



Pickup Reels on the Increase in CornRichard Taylor, Extension Agronomist; rtaylor@udel.edu


The impact of the high winds from the recent tropical system are being felt throughout Delaware as more and more growers try to purchase pickup reel kits for their combines to help pick up the flattened corn seen around the state. The University of Minnesota suggests the use of plastic snouts as well as reels to help pick up lodged corn and move it off the corn head and into the combine. Until the device you choose arrives and is installed, it’s advisable to harvest as much of the matured corn that is still standing as you can. Once installed, take a little time to learn the correct settings for the new equipment. You probably will need to slow the snapping roll speed to improve harvestability. In each new field condition, readjust your combine to minimize your losses.


When a crop is down and you are using special attachments, such as pickup reels, dividers and gathering devices, take special care to keep your speed slow enough to avoid a plugged machine. These devices are designed to protect the combine and reduce operator fatigue but you must travel slower in a lodged crop. If your combine does become clogged, remember all the safety precautions and be sure the machine is turned off and all moving parts have stopped before trying to unplug the stoppage.



Bedding Down Pastures and Hayfields for WinterRichard Taylor, Extension Agronomist; rtaylor@udel.edu


There are a number of practices that can be used to prepare pasture and hay fields for the upcoming cold weather. Although we generally put the last shot of fertilizer on fields in mid-August, this year’s very dry August weather made many producers think twice about applying fertilizer at that time. If you haven’t yet applied the second half of your annual application of phosphorus (P) and potash (K), try to apply it as soon as possible to help prepare fields for winter. Soil often remains warm for an extended period in the fall creating ideal conditions for root growth. Added P will aid the forage’s root development. Potash applications now will increase soil and later plant K reserves to help forage plants tolerate freezing conditions during the winter. Potash actually can lower the freezing point of the liquid inside plant cells and protect the cells from freezing injury. In addition to P and K, a light application of nitrogen (N) will help support plant growth and root development.


If you are grazing or have a way to harvest forage produced late in the year, you may want to stimulate as much fall top growth as possible. Since soil moisture levels have returned to near field capacity, another N application can be made to stimulate fall growth. Grasses are fairly tolerant of late-season harvest although you will need to know the characteristics of your species’ winter energy storage method so you can adjust your cutting height so as to not damage the grass stand. Legumes can be a little more sensitive to late-season harvest management so allow them time to recover before a frost or allow them to establish their winter rosette form when taking your last harvest or grazing cycle.


For stockpiled forages such as orchardgrass, ryegrasses, and tall fescue, use the orchardgrass and ryegrass first and hold the saved tall fescue forage for winter grazing since it maintains its quality the longest of the cool-season species. If you failed to get N on fields that were to be stockpiled, apply the N immediately to accumulate as much growth as possible.


Another aspect of fall management is fall reseeding to thicken stands injured by summer drought or other problems. Currently, we are in the ideal time frame for reseeding most species, although for reed canarygrass it is past the ideal time and success becomes less likely with each day that passes. Reed canarygrass needs about six weeks of growth before frost to ensure that the stand will survive the winter. Most of the other cool-season grasses will establish well throughout the month of September and sometimes can be successfully seeded in early to mid-October. Before seeding, be sure your soil fertility and soil pH levels are in the optimum range. If they aren’t, you’ll need to bring them into line before seeding, which likely means waiting until next year to seed. If soil fertility levels are good, clip or graze the field as low as you can and use a no-till drill to make the new seeding. The best results are usually obtained by planting no-till either at right angles or on two diagonals so the rows cross. Another, although less desirable, option is to use a frost-crack seeding late next winter or early next spring. In the frost crack seeding method, seed is broadcast over the soil surface and the freezing and thawing cycles experienced in late February and early March crack open the soil allowing some of the seed to be worked into the soil and essentially plant itself. This method works best for small seeded species such as white and red clover and also may work for small-seeded grasses such as timothy and Kentucky bluegrass.


Finally when grazing, avoid allowing animals on the pasture when the soil is wet since this can lead to compaction problems and can damage plant crowns where regrowth occurs.



Osprey Winter Wheat – Best Suited for Fall ApplicationsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Osprey is registered for grass weeds, including annual ryegrass, in winter wheat. Osprey is not labeled for barley. Application timing is emergence to jointing of wheat or 2 leaf to 2-tiller grasses. Osprey requires a non-ionic surfactant plus nitrogen. Fertilizer nitrogen (28 to 32% N solutions) should be used at 1 to 2 qt/A. Ammonium sulfate (AMS) can be used at 1.5 to 3 lb/A. Osprey can be applied with methylated seed oil. Osprey is used at 4.75 oz wt/A. Osprey is not labeled for use with liquid fertilizer carriers. The label states that liquid fertilizer solutions should be no more than 15% of the spray carrier volume. Nitrogen fertilizer greater than 15% of the spray volume should not be applied within 14 days of the Osprey application which makes timing of spring applications difficult. As a result, fall applications are more appropriate than spring. Osprey can be tankmixed with a Harmony GT and Harmony Extra (as well as other herbicides), but tankmixtures with Banvel/Clarity or 2,4-D will reduce grass control. The grasses specifically mentioned on the label that are important in our region are annual ryegrass (it will not control volunteer grain rye), annual bluegrass, and roughstalk bluegrass. The label lists brome species as suppression. Broadleaf activity is good on wild radish and wild mustard plus suppression of henbit and common chickweed. UD has tested Osprey for ryegrass the past two to three years with favorable results. We do not have experience with the other grass species listed. Soybeans can be planted 90 days after treatment and refer to the label for other crops.



Be Sure to Use a Burndown with No-Till Small GrainsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


More and more fields are being planted as no-till small grains. These fields need a non-selective herbicide prior to emergence (either Gramoxone or glyphosate). Too often, these fields look ‘clean’ at planting time but numerous weeds have emerged and are quite small. These weeds are much easier to control prior to planting than later. Harmony GT or Harmony Extra are not replacements for these non-selective herbicides.



Fall Weed ScoutingMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Fall is an important time to take stock of how effective your weed programs were this year. Success in improving or modifying your weed management program for next season is going to depend on your knowledge of weeds in that field. This fall when it is fresh in your mind, take note of which weeds were present in the field, how heavy the infestation was, and where those patches were located. Taking notes as you are combining may be the best time to locate these weeds. Also, note size of the weeds. If the weeds are small and did most of their growing after the crop began to dry down, they will not impact yield and they will not produce many seeds that can plague you next year. These weeds were either suppressed by your herbicide program or emerged after your herbicides had been played out. These weeds are of little consequence. On the other hand, note those weeds that are large and competed with the crop all season.


Here are things to consider if a field was weedy at harvest. First, if a weed was not controlled review the label and extension information to be sure that the weed species is supposed to be controlled by the herbicide(s) you used. If the herbicides you used are not effective then you may need to switch or include another herbicide in your program. Also, with all the lack of rain at times this season, poor herbicide performance from your residual herbicides was probably due to the herbicide not being moved into the soil (“not activated”). Finally, if the weed was supposed to be controlled by your program, and the herbicide was a triazine or an ALS-inhibiting herbicide see your county extension agent to discuss the potential of herbicide-resistant weeds. ALS-inhibiting herbicides include Accent, Steadfast, Exceed, Permit, Sceptor, Pursuit, or Harmony GT etc. Finally, with glyphosate, new reports of glyphosate-resistance have shown up in other areas of the US, but if more than one species was not controlled in your field, it is less likely to be a resistance problem.


If perennials are a problem, scouting gives you a chance to locate the patches and identify areas to spot-spray with a post-harvest treatment. In addition, you can plan for next season to help determine if a spot-treatment is appropriate or if the perennials are wide-spread and need to treat the entire field.



Fall Control of Perennial WeedsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Fall is the most practical time to treat perennial weeds because it is the time that plants can move the herbicide to the roots where it will do the most good. When considering fall weed control the emphasis should be on what the patch of weeds will look like next spring or summer, not the amount of dead stems this fall. In addition, it is important to consider that a fall application will not eradicate a stand of perennial weeds; rather, the fall application will reduce the stand size or the stand vigor the next year. Fall application of glyphosate is the most flexible treatment for most perennial weeds such as artichoke, bermudagrass, Canada thistle, common milkweed, common pokeweed, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle and johnsongrass. Rates of 1.5X of the normal rates are the most economical; higher rates generally do not improve control (if 22 oz is normally used then 34 oz/A; if 1 qt is usually used then 1.5 qts/A). Banvel at 2 to 4 pints is also labeled for artichoke, bindweeds, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle, milkweeds, pokeweed, or Canada thistle. (Planting small grains must be delayed after Banvel application - 20 days per pint of Banvel applied.)


Fall herbicide applications should be made to actively growing plants. Allow plants to recover after harvest before treating them. Allow 10 days after treatment before disturbing the treated plants. Consider the options of spot treating in a standing crop; keeping the combine header as high as possible so the weeds are quicker to recover; or combining around the weed patches and then spraying those patches immediately after harvesting. Weed species differ in their sensitivity to frost; some are easily killed by frost (i.e. horsenettle) others can withstand relatively heavy frosts. Check the weeds prior to application to be sure they are actively growing.



Fall Herbicide TreatmentsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Fall herbicide treatments have been discussed as options for no-till crops. The idea is to apply an herbicide this fall that will control existing weeds and possibly provide residual weed control so that fields do not have lots of vegetation next spring. Less vegetation in the spring allows the soil to warm up faster and conserve moisture. This practice has worked in many of the mid-west states, but their winters are colder and often with more snow cover. We have looked at various herbicides the past few years for no-till soybeans. Products tested include Valor, Canopy EX, and Express. In our trials the fall treatments were applied with 2,4-D, Gramoxone, and/or Banvel to be sure plants that emerged in the early fall were controlled and applications were made in late October to mid-November. Most of the products provided some control when evaluated in March, including Gramoxone or glyphosate alone. The remaining weeds were small and less vigorous. However, as the spring progressed Valor and Express became much less effective, as well as allowed for spring germination of many species. Those plants that were present became quite large and robust by early May. As a result, non-selective herbicide was needed before soybean planting. In 2006, Canopy EX provided excellent weed control up to time of soybean planting (including horseweed). Canopy EX restricts your rotation to allow only soybeans the following spring. Canopy EX was not effective for postemergence control of some species and needs a non-selective herbicide (Gramoxone or glyphosate) as a tankmixed partner.


Fall treatments should be applied while the plants are still actively growing. If you are considering a fall herbicide program, be sure to consider all pros and cons, including resistance management.



Volunteer Rye Cannot be Controlled in Small GrainsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


There have been a considerable number of fields with rye-strips planted for vegetables in some areas, and these fields are very convenient to plant small grains in the fall. However, keep in mind that there is no herbicide available to control volunteer rye in wheat or barley. There are a few herbicides that will control or suppress Italian (or annual) ryegrass in these crops, but they will not control grain rye used for windbreaks. Therefore, if the windbreaks were allowed to produce seed this year, you can expect the rye to act as a competitive weed in your small grains. Rye seeds generally germinate the same year they are produced, so it is not a long-term problem. However, it can be an issue if you planted rye strips last fall and then plant small grains this fall.



Fall Weed Control in Pastures and HayQuintin Johnson, Extension Weed Science; quintin@udel.edu


Now that we’ve had some much-needed rain, an excellent opportunity exists for perennial weed management with fall herbicide applications. Most herbicides labeled for use in pasture are translocated, or moved to various parts of the plant. As fall approaches, perennial weeds like curly dock, Canada thistle, horsenettle, pokeweed, and others are beginning to replenish stored carbohydrates in root structures to prepare for over-wintering and new spring growth. Translocated herbicides are able to reach the rooting structures more efficiently during this period, thus providing more effective perennial weed control. Fall applications should be made at 7 to 10 days before mowing for greatest effectiveness. In well established perennial weed populations, more than one year of good weed control will be needed to reduce significantly the rootstock of perennial weeds.


There are several things that must be considered when choosing an herbicide for pastures or hay fields including: forage species grown; weed species present; risk of herbicide contact with desirable plants through root uptake, drift, volatility; residues in composted straw or manure; herbicide rotational, over-seeding, grazing, or harvest restrictions; and cost. Consult your local cooperative extension agent or industry representative for help with these considerations, and be sure to follow all precautions and restrictions on herbicide labels.


A new “Pasture and Hay Weed Management Guide” for Delaware is now available from University of Delaware Cooperative Extension. Contact your local county agent for a printed copy, or access a pdf version on-line at http://www.rec.udel.edu/weed_sci/WeedPublicat.htm.



September Supply/Demand Report Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Corn Analysis

U.S. corn production is now forecast at 11.114 billion bushels, a 138 million bushel increase from the August estimate. USDA raised the '06 corn yield estimate to 154.7 bushels per acre, as compared to 152.2 bushels per acre a month earlier. Acres to be harvested were lowered to 71.8 million acres, a reduction of 300,000 acres from last month. Beginning stocks were reduced 50 million bushels and are now placed at 1.012 billion bushels. Imports were unchanged at 10 million bushels for a total '06/'07 marketing year supply of 13.135 billion bushels. If realized, the U.S. is projected to produce the second highest corn yield and the second highest corn production on record.


Domestic demand was left unchanged from the August forecast for a total domestic corn use of 9.665 billion bushels. The U.S. corn export estimate was increased by 100 million bushels from last month, now projected at 2.250 billion bushels. Total U.S. corn use for the '06/'07 marketing year is now estimated at 11.915 billion bushels. Ending stocks were reduced by 12 million bushels from the August estimate and are now estimated at 1.220 billion bushels. In comparison, carry over stocks from the '05/'06 marketing year, which carried into the '06/'07 marketing year, were 2.012 billion bushels. Even though some in the grain trade expected a lower production number for '06 U.S. corn production, the report is likely to be viewed as price neutral due to the fact that ending stocks were reduced slightly. The season average farm price for U.S. corn is unchanged from last month at $2.15 to $2.55 per bushel.


Soybean Analysis

U.S. soybean production is now estimated at 3.093 billion bushels, a 165 million bushel increase from the August estimate. USDA raised the soybean yield estimate to 41.8 bushels per acre, a 2.2 bushel increase from last month. Acres projected for harvest were left unchanged at 73.9 million acres. Beginning stocks were reduced 30 million bushels from the August estimate and are now placed at 485 million bushels. Imports were left unchanged at 4 million bushels for a total '06/'07 marketing year supply of 3.581 million bushels. On the demand side of the equation crushings were increased 15 million bushels and are now estimated at 1.765 billion bushels. U.S. soybeans for export were increased 35 million bushels, now estimated at 1.125 billion bushels. Seed use was left unchanged at 91 million bushels. Residual use was increased 5 million bushels and is now placed at 70 million bushels for a total use of 3.051 billion bushels for the '06/'07 marketing year. Ending stocks were increased 80 million bushels from the August estimate and are now projected at 530 million bushels. The September soybean supply and demand estimates were widely expected in the trade. The report is somewhat bearish due to the increase in ending stocks. The season average farm price projection was decreased 10 cents on both ends of the price range from last month and is now estimated at $4.90 to $5.90 per bushel.


Wheat Analysis

The only change made in the September U.S. Wheat S & D balance sheet is a 5 million bushel increase in wheat used for food. This resulted in ending stocks for U.S. wheat being reduced by 5 million bushels, now estimated at 429 million bushels. The season average farm price for all U.S. wheat is now projected at $3.95 to $4.45 per bushel, a 5 cent increase on the low end and a 5 cent per bushel decrease on the high end of the price range.


Side Note: A new fact sheet is available entitled "Understanding the Falling Number Wheat Quality Test", ER06-02. The fact sheet can be obtained by contacting your county agent, Carl German <clgerman@udel.edu> 302-831-1317 or go to http://ag.udel.edu/frec/ click on Publications, click on Extension Papers, ER06-02.   


Marketing Strategy

The release of the September supply/demand estimates for U.S. corn and soybeans does not change earlier expectations for the markets to work lower through the harvest period. It should be duly noted that total U.S. corn use for the '06/'07 marketing year is outpacing production by 801 million bushels. For U.S. soybeans, '06 production is projected to be just 42 million bushels greater than total use for the marketing year. This means that achieving normal or better '07 production in the U.S. and world will be extremely important for both corn and soybeans. This is likely to result in good price volatility and excellent pricing opportunities for both the remaining portion of '06 production (post harvest) and excellent pre-harvest pricing opportunities for next year's production, beginning after the first of the calendar year. For those that do not have storage space available it may be advisable to consider re-ownership of harvest delivered corn and soybean production by purchasing call options. The opportunity to employ that strategy will not materialize until we near the harvest peak. For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist





Severe Deer Damage Assistance Program (SDDAP)


Permits obtained through the Severe Deer Damage Assistance Program will allow antlerless deer to be harvested from August 15, 2006 through

May 15, 2007 on enrolled farms. 


For more information on enrolling in the SDDAP, contact Joe Rogerson with the Division of Fish and Wildlife at (302) 653-2882.



Equine Forage Nutrition and Dental Care

November 4, 2006     9:00 am – 3:00 pm

University of Delaware, Townsend Hall

Newark, DE


This is a statewide conference, pertinent to all horse owners. Registration fee is $20 and includes a light breakfast with coffee, mid-morning coffee break, lunch, mid-afternoon soda break and seminar notes.


Pre registration is required and must be received by November 1.


For more information contact Dr. David Marshall at (302) 831-1340 or davidlm@udel.edu




Crop Management School

November 28 to 30, 2006

Princess Royale Hotel and Conference Center

Ocean City, MD


For more information and to register online go to: www.mdcrops.umd.edu


For more information contact Bob Kratochvil at rkratoch@umd.edu



Pesticide Safety Training and Testing for Pesticide Applicators Certification

December 5 and 6, 2006

Del Tech Terry Campus, Dover, DE

Room 427 Corporate Training Center


December 5th is training – 8:15 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.  Training continues the morning of December 6th, from 8:15 a.m. – noon.  The exam starts at 1:00 p.m. on December 6th.


Be sure to bring your workbook! You don’t have to register for training, but you must register for the exam.  Call DDA (302-698-4500) one week in advance to register for the exam.

For more information go to:




Delaware Horticulture Industry Expo and Annual Pesticide Conference

January 18t and 19, 2007

Modern Maturity Center

Dover, DE


For more information contact Valann Budischak at valannb@udel.edu or (888) 448-1203



Delaware Agriculture Week

January 22 to 27, 2007


The University of Delaware Cooperative Extension, Delaware State University Cooperative Extension and the Delaware Department of Agriculture are again cooperating to organize a week of agricultural-related events.


The following General Agenda outlines the various meetings and events that will be held during Delaware Agriculture Week.  Most will take place at the Delaware State Fairgrounds.  The associated trade show will take place in the Exhibit Hall from Monday January 22nd to Thursday January 25th.


A complete, detailed program will be available online by November 1st and the completed program will be mailed out in December.  Check the website for updates: http://www.rec.udel.edu/AgWeek/home.htm



Ag Week General Agenda


Monday, January 22

Vegetable Growers Assn. of Delaware Annual Meeting

State Fairgrounds

General Session - 9 to Noon

Fresh Market/Vine Crops - 1:30 to 4 PM

Potato Growers Session - 1:30 to 4 PM


Vegetable Production Seminar for Small, Specialized, or Part-Time Producers

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Hay and Pasture Day-Time Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Hay and Pasture Evening Session

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Tuesday, January 23

Vegetable Growers Assn. of Delaware Annual Meeting

State Fairgrounds

Processing Crops Session - 9 AM to 4 PM

Agritourism/Direct Marketing - 9 AM to 4 PM


Delaware Vegetable Growers Assn. Banquet

Harrington Fire Hall - 6PM


Aquaculture Session

State Fairgrounds - 1:30 to 4 PM


Beef Cattle Session

State Fairgrounds – 6 to 9 PM


Small Flock Poultry Session

State Fairgrounds – 6 to 9 PM


Wednesday, January 24

Dairy Educational Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Greenhouse Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Forestry Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Small Ruminant Session

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Equine Nutrient Management Session

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Thursday, January 25

Agronomy/Soybean Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Mid-Atlantic Soybean Association Dinner and Annual Meeting

State Fairgrounds - 6 PM


Wine Grapes Sessions

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Hedging Workshop

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Poultry Nutrient Management Evening Session

State Fairgrounds - 6 to 9 PM


Friday, January 26

Poultry Nutrient Management Day-Time Session

State Fairgrounds - 9 to Noon


Pre-Harvest/Post-Harvest Grain Marketing and Winning the Game Workshops

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


FFA and Youth Programs

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to Noon


Saturday, January 27

Equine Educational Meetings

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM


Standardbred Owners Seminar

State Fairgrounds - 9AM to Noon


Delaware Organic Growers Association

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to 4 PM



Mid-Atlantic Direct Marketing Conference and Trade Show

February 21 - 24, 2007

Holiday Inn Select

Solomons, MD


This conference is designed for farmers and organizations engaged in direct marketing their agricultural products to consumers.  The conference features workshops, seminars, farm market tours, and an industry trade show.


For more information go to www.madmc.com





Weather Summary


Week of September 7 to September 13, 2006

Readings Taken from Midnight to Midnight



No rainfall recorded


Air Temperature:

Highs ranged from 84°F on September 9 to 69°F on September 11 and September 12.

Lows ranged from 60°F on September 8 to 50°F on September 12 and September 13.


Soil Temperature:

70°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2" depth, under sod)


The Weekly Crop Update is available online at



Weekly Crop Update is compiled and edited by Emmalea Ernest, Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin.