Volume 6, Issue 25                                                                           September 11, 1998


Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Lima Beans.

Corn earworm larvae continue to be found ranging in size from " to one inch long. Controls are needed if you find one larva per 6 foot of row. The rate of Lannate will depend on the larval size at the time of treatment. If worms are small, 1.5 to 2 pts per acre will be adequate. However, if the worm size is mixed at the time of treatment, 3 pts/acre will be needed.


All peppers should be sprayed on a 7-10 day schedule for corn borer, fall armyworm and aphid control except in the Bridgeville area where sprays are needed on a 5-7 day schedule.

Snap Beans.

Processing snap beans should be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with Orthene for corn borer control. Asana should be combined with Orthene at the pin spray for earworm control. In most areas, sprays are needed on a 6-day schedule from the pin stage through harvest except in the Bridgeville area where sprays are needed on a 4-day schedule from the pin stage through harvest.


Webworms and beet armyworm continue to be found feeding in spinach fields throughout the state. Ambush, Lannate, Pounce and Spintor will provide webworm control. If the beet armyworm is the predominant species, Spintor should be used.

Sweet Corn.

Until the end of the season, fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-day schedule throughout the state *


Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Maryland and University of Delaware ; everts@udel.edu

Pickling Cucumbers.

Phytophthora fruit rot is a disease that can infect all cucurbit fruit including pickling cucumbers. Fruit rot is a different phase of crown and root rot, all caused by Phytophthora capsici and other Phytophthora spp. The symptoms are initially large water soaked lesions which develop a white dense growth on the fruit. The disease can spread rapidly and fruit collapse. This continues after harvest. Like the crown and root rot phase, high soil moisture (typically standing water) for two days allows the sporangia to form and release zoospores. Secondary infections then occur. Infection can also occur in fall pickles following a spring crop which was under standing water.

Water management is critical to reducing damage from this disease. Avoid planting susceptible crops in low lying areas where standing water is common. Plant on raised beds and subsoil between crops to avoid layers that are impervious to water. A three year rotation is important. Crops to avoid in the rotation are all cucurbits (including melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin) and pepper, tomato and eggplant. *


MELCAST for Fungicide Application on Watermelons.

This will be the last report for MELCAST for the 1998 Season. Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Below are the EFI values from weather stations located on the Eastern Shore August 29 - September 4 . Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

EFI Values













Wootten Farms, Galestown,MD








Mark Collins, Laurel, DE








U of D, REC Georgetown, DE








Vincent Farms Laurel, DE








Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day. *

University of Delaware Lima Bean Twilight Meeting

September 21, 1998

5:30 p.m.

U of D Research & Education Center, Route 9, Georgetown, Delaware

Delaware Cooperative Extension is sponsoring a tour of the lima bean research and demonstration plots at the Research and Education Center on September 21 starting at 5:30 p.m. with hot dogs and burgers. Tour of the plots will begin at 6:00 p.m. This is a chance to see 1998 lima bean research, talk about UD projects, and ask questions about lima bean production.

Research/Demonstration to be highlighted includes:

- Lima bean variety trails

- Herbicide evaluations

- Reduced herbicide programs

- Weed/disease interactions

- Experiences with 15-inch rows

- White mold trials

- Downy mildew trials

- Nitrogen management

Program will begin at 5:30 at the Research and Education Center on Rte 9, 5 miles east of Georgetown. Please call Mabel Hough (302/856-7303) by Sept. 18 if you intend to come so we can plan on food for dinner. This meeting is free and anyone interested in attending is welcome. *

Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu


Corn earworm pressure has increased in very late-planted double crop soybeans. Larvae range in size from to inch long. In most cases, very little pod or leaf feeding has been found. Controls will not be needed until you see the first signs of pod feeding and you find 3 larvae per 25 sweeps in narrow row beans or 5 per 25 sweeps in wide row soybeans. A pyrethroid or Larvin will provide control.

Small Grains.

As you make plans to plant wheat, be sure to use a combination of cultural practices for Hessian fly management. We saw numerous fields with economic impacts from Hessian fly this past spring. In some situations, entire fields were severely stunted and not worth keeping. These fields had been generally planted in continuous wheat and/or were in no-till situations with volunteer small grains present at the time of planting. In other cases, plants began to lodge near harvest with lodging ranging from 5 to 25%. All of the infested fields were planted after the "fly-free date"; however, with the warm winter conditions it appears that we had 2 generations last fall and/or an early spring generation. Since there are no effective chemical controls for Hessian fly, a combination of the following cultural practices should be used: complete plowing of infested wheat stubble soon after harvest, crop rotation (do not plant wheat in the same field 2 years in a row), eliminate volunteer wheat before planting to prevent early egg laying, do not use wheat as a fall cover crop near fields with infestations in 1998 and/or near fields to be used for grain in 1999, plant after the fly free date (Oct 3 – New Castle County; Oct 8 – Kent County; Oct 10 – Sussex County) and plant resistant varieties. Preliminary evaluations of the small grain variety trial at Georgetown indicated that there were a few varieties that exhibited lower lodging from Hessian fly this season. The three varieties that exhibited low to moderate stem lodging and good yield rankings at Middletown included SS EXP 3409D(SS EXP 3409R), Roane and Pioneer 25R26. A table on Hessian fly evaluations will be included in the 1998 Small Grain Variety Trial Summary. *


Weed Control in Seedling Alfalfa - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist ; mjv@udel.edu

Getting seedling alfalfa off to a good start is critical for a long term quality stand. The following herbicide suggestions are for pure alfalfa stands. Gramoxone or Roundup can be used prior to planting to kill emerged weeds. Balan or Eptam can be used pre-plant incorporated for control of small-seeded broadleaves such as pigweed or lambsquarters and most annual grasses. Residual control of either Balan or Eptam is only a few weeks. Fall postemergence treatments include Butyrac 200 (2 to 4 alfalfa trifoliates), Buctril (at least 4 trifoliates), Kerb, Poast Plus, Select, or Pursuit (at least 2 trifoliates). Pursuit provides the broadest spectrum of control, and can be tank-mixed with Buctril or Butyrac to improve control. Poast Plus and Select are effective only on grasses. The addition of Buctril to Pursuit will improve German moss, lambquarters, and henbit control. Kerb will provide the best common chickweed control, but it must be applied when soil temperatures are 50 degrees or less and requires rainfall for activation. Applications to small weeds is critical for effective control. Most of the labeled herbicides can cause some crop injury. *


Fall Control of Perennial Weeds - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist ; mjv@udel.edu

Fall is the best time to treat perennial weeds because it is the time that plants are best able to move the herbicide to the roots where it will do the most good. When considering fall weed control the emphasis should be on what the patch of weeds will look like next spring or summer not the amount of dead stems this fall. Also, it is important to consider that a fall application will not eradicate a stand of perennial weeds; the fall application will reduce the stand size or the stand vigor. Fall applications of Roundup Ultra is the most flexible treatment for most perennial weeds such as artichoke, bermudagrass, Canada thistle, common milkweed, common pokeweed, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle and johnsongrass. Rates of 1 to 2 quarts are consistently the most economical. Allow at least 7 days after treatment before tilling, mowing, or planting through the treated area. Banvel at 2 to 4 pints is also labeled for artichoke, bindweeds, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle, milkweeds, pokeweed or Canada thistle. Allow 10 days after treatment before disturbing the treated plants. Planting small grains must be delayed after Banvel application (20 days per pint of Banvel applied). Fall herbicide applications should be made to actively growing plants. Allow plants to recover after harvest before treating them. Consider the options of spot treating in a standing crop; keeping the combine header as high as possible so the weeds are quicker to recover; or combining around the weed patches and then spraying those patches immediately after harvesting. Weed species differ in their sensitivity to frost; some are easily killed by frost (i.e. horsenettle) others can withstand relatively heavy frosts. Check the weeds prior to application to be sure they are actively growing. *


Resist the Temptation to Treat Annual Weeds In The Fall - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist ; mjv@udel.edu

Fall herbicide applications for control of annual weeds needs to be considered carefully. Most of the time it is best to accept the fact the weed control program was not acceptable; find out why your weed control was not acceptable; and wait until next year to take action. The temptation is often to spray in the fall to kill the weed seed. To have a significant impact on reducing weed seed production, the herbicide must be extremely effective on the specific weed and applied at or shortly after flowering. The further after flowering that the herbicides are applied the greater the percentage of viable seed that is produced. Fall herbicides to dry down weed biomass to reduce foreign matter can make economic sense but to spray to reduce weed seed often does not make economic sense.


Pre-harvest Aids in Corn - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist ; mjv@udel.edu

In most situations corn is drying down early this year, but some may be wondering about options for harvest aids. To speed dry down of corn or weeds there are a few things available. Defol will dry down plants but it does not have herbicide activity. Defol is labeled for use at 1 gal/A. Dry down is slow, expect at least 14 days. Roundup can be used after the corn moisture is 35% or less (black layer formed), allow 7 days between treatment and harvest. Up to three quarts can be applied, only 1 qt by air. 2,4-D is also labeled up to 1 quart of a 4 lb gallon. Apply 2,4-D after the dent stage. Apply Roundup and 2,4-D with extreme caution because spray drift can be very damaging to trees, shrubs, and lawns at this time of year. *


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP)

Now that feed grain and soybean prices are below the loan level in many areas, including Delaware, farmers will want to take advantage of one of the

revenue protection programs made available in the 1996 Farm Bill. Known as the LDP option, it is available to farmers who agree to forego obtaining a marketing assistance loan.

What is an LDP?

An LDP, or Loan Deficiency Payment, is a one-time amount an eligible producer can collect on grain or soybeans that "is not" put under a 9-month (FSA) non-recourse marketing loan. Producers may take out a 9-month loan or apply for an LDP, but not both. The LDP payment rate is equal to the amount, if any, by which a posted county price (PCP) is below the designated county loan rate on a specific date. For example, a recent Field-Direct LDP made on corn in Delaware was 23 cents per bushel.

There are two kinds of LDPs available to eligible producers: 1). Basic, stored-grain LDPs; and 2). Field-direct LDPs.


Eligible Production?

All of a farmer's actual production is eligible for an LDP. Producer requests are subject to a reasonableness test. The test is used to determine that an individual producer's yields are in line with production yields in the area.


Who Can Collect an LDP?

Producers who are enrolled in an FSA Production Flexibility 7-year Contract (PFC) and have a crop acreage report on file are eligible for LDPs on contract commodities, including wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, and oats. In addition, all soybeans and minor oilseeds are eligible.

In Summary

The Loan Deficiency Payment is a revenue enhancement option that is available to eligible producers. There are necessary forms to file and rules that apply that are available in the county Farm Service Agency offices. Field-direct LDPs require filing Form 709 before harvest begins and the Basic-stored LDP requires filing Form 666. Contact the county FSA office for further information. *


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

August 27 - September 2, 1998

Quantity Produce Price
11,095 Cantaloupes  



Super Star



762 Honeydews 0.40-1.40
3968 Sugar Babies 0.30-1.140
357,641 Watermelons  

Crimson Sweet


12 up


15 up


20 up


25 up




12 up




20 up


25 up


All Sweet


12 up


15 up


20 up


25 up




15 up


20 up


25 up


Royal Majesty


15 up


20 up




Yellow Babies




Yellow Meat

  Sample Sales  

All Sweet


20 up


25 up

54 Peppers  






  Mixed 7.00
537 Tomatoes  




  Sweet Corn Doz.  
16 Cucumbers 3.00-8,50
176 Squash  




Weather Summary

Week of September 3 to September 9

0.05 inches: September 3
0.19 inches: September 4
0.07 inches: September 7
0.14 inches: September 8
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 92 F on September 7 to 70 F on September 9.
Lows Ranged from 70 F on September 7 to 52 F on September 9.

Soil Temperature:

74.5 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.