Volume 6, Issue 26                                                                                  September 18, 1998


Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Corn Borers and Corn Earworm.

Corn borer moths catches have started to decline in all blacklight traps throughout the state. However, if you have weedy/grassy patches next to your fields, corn borer moths can easily be found in these areas and will potentially lay eggs in nearby fields. Corn earworm moth counts remain at 5-6 per night in most areas so they will still be attracted to late- planted sweet corn, snap beans, peppers and lima beans. Be sure to check the Crop Pest Hotline for the most recent trap catches in your area (1-800-345-7544). We will update the counts on Wednesday through the end of September.

Spray Schedules for Vegetables:

  1. Peppers: 7-10 day for corn borer, earworm and fall armyworm
  2. Processing Snap Beans: After the bud and pin sprays, a 6 day schedule for corn borer and earworm until harvest.
  3. Fresh Market Sweet Corn: 3 day silk spray schedule *


Spinach Weed Control - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist ; kee@udel.edu

Spinach has returned as an important and widely planted vegetable crop on Delmarva. Weed control is critical to not only produce good yields, but to achieve "A" grade, with little or no trash and foreign matter.

Ro-Neet, applied at 3 to 4 pints/acre, preplant incorporated provides excellent grass control, as well as control of several broadleaf weeds, including Sheperd’s purse, Pigweed, and Purslane. Crop safety is enhanced if the Ro-Neet is applied 7 to 10 days prior to planting.

An emergency Section 18 label is in effect on all three Delmarva states for Dual, applied pre-emergence, just after planting, at 3/4 to 1 pint/acre. Dual assists on grass control, but also helps on several broadleaf weeds, including Hairy Galinsoga, Pigweed, Purslane, and Eastern Black Nightshade.

Many producers reduce the Ro-Neet rate to 2 pints/acre if Dual is to be applied.

Spin-Aid is labeled for post-emergence use in processing spinach only. It is recommended for use in the Fall months on spinach with a minimum of four to six true leaves. Spin-Aid should be applied in a spray volume of 10 to 18 gallons of water per acre with an 8002 flat fan nozzle, or a comparable nozzle. Crop injury potential is thought to be reduced if sprayed during the evening or during darkness. Spin-Aid will control several seedling weeds, including Morningglories, Jimsonweed, and Ragweed. Check the label for other restrictions.

Poast can also be used to control escaped grasses in spinach.

With the removal of Sprout-Nip from production, chickweed control in overwintered spinach is a critical concern. While new materials are being evaluated, currently Spin-Aid, which promises mediocre results is available. Cultivation is critical to controlling chickweed in overwintered spinach.*

University of Delaware Lima Bean Twilight Meeting

September 21, 1998

5:30 p.m.

U of D Research & Education Center, Route 9, Georgetown, Delaware

Delaware Cooperative Extension is sponsoring a tour of the lima bean research and demonstration plots at the Research and Education Center on September 21 starting at 5:30 p.m. with hot dogs and burgers. Tour of the plots will begin at 6:00 p.m. This is a chance to see 1998 lima bean research, talk about UD projects, and ask questions about lima bean production.

Research/Demonstration to be highlighted includes:

                - Lima bean variety trails

- Herbicide evaluations

                - Reduced herbicide programs

                - Weed/disease interactions

                - Experiences with 15-inch rows

                - White mold trials

                - Downy mildew trials

                - Nitrogen management

Extension Specialists for crop management, weed science, and plant pathology will be available to answer your questions.

Program will begin at 5:30 at the Research and Education Center on Rte 9, 5 miles east of Georgetown. Please call Mabel Hough (302/856-7303) by Sept. 18 if you intend to come so we can plan on food for dinner. This meeting is free and anyone interested in attending is welcome. *

Pumpkin Twilight Meeting

University of Maryland Wye Research & Education Center

September 24, 1998

4:30 - 7:00 p.m.

Twenty-two varieties of pumpkins, sprayed and non-sprayed, no-tilled into hairy vetch will be on display. We will also be discussing : nutrient management, plant spacing, disease, insect and weed IPM, pollination and irrigation. Hope you can join us on the 24th!

Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu


Corn earworm larvae can still be found in late planted soybeans; however, populations have started to decline in a number of fields. Be sure to watch for diseased worms when sampling. Once you begin to see an occasional diseased caterpillar, it generally takes one week for the population to crash. No controls should be applied unless at least 1/3 of the caterpillars are 1/2-inch in size and you have begun to see the first signs of pod feeding. Corn earworm can also significantly defoliate plants so a treatment may be necessary during the pod-fill stage if the defoliation level reaches 15% or more. *


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

U.S. & World Supply and Demand Update

Corn: Projected 1998/99 U.S. ending stocks of corn are up 71 million bushels from last month as a larger crop more than offsets smaller forecasted carryin stocks and larger exports. Forecast corn production of 9.738 billion bushels is up 146 million bushels from last month because of the higher forecasted yield. Projected 1998/99 corn exports are up 25 million bushels from last month, and a 50 million bushel reduction in carryin stocks is due to larger forecasted exports for 1997/98. The projected season-average price range is $1.80 to $2.20 per bushel, down 15 cents per bushel on each end from last month.

Global ending stocks for corn were increased slightly from the August report, mainly due to forecasted production increases in the U.S., Eastern Europe, the EU, Australia, and Thailand.

Soybeans: U.S. oilseed production prospects for 1998/99 were increased, due mainly to larger soybean production. U.S. soybean production is forecast at a record 2.909 billion bushels, up 84 million bushels from last month and 7 percent higher than last year. Soybeans will be coming off a record planted and harvested area with the forecasted yield placed at 40.6 bushels per acre.

U.S. demand prospects for oilseeds and products are little changed this month, with small increases in use based mostly on reduced price forecasts. Soybean crush and exports were increased slightly for both the 1997/98 and 1998/99 marketing years. Ending stocks for soybeans are projected to reach 485 million bushels, the largest since 1985/86. However, ending stocks during the current marketing year equal 18.4 percent of use, a much less burdensome level than the 28.5 percent stocks-to-use ratio in 1985/86.

Season-average U.S. soybean prices are forecast at $4.65 to $5.35 per bushel, off 35 cents per bushel from last month and sharply below the $6.45 average price from last year. Soybean prices have not been this low since the $4.78 per bushel season-average recorded in 1986/87.

Global oilseed production for 1998/99 is forecast at a record 290.8 million metric tons, up 2.7 million tons from last month with most of the gain attributed to the U.S.

Wheat: Projected U.S. 1998/99 ending stocks are up 66 million bushels from last month, due to a larger crop and reduced exports. The projected price range is down 5 cents on the low end and 15 cents per bushel on the high end, now forecast at $2.50 to $2.80 per bushel.

Global ending stocks for wheat were increased from 125.72 to 127.67 million metric tons. *

Fact Sheet for Integrated Pond Management: Barley Straw as an Alternative Method of Algae Control Now Available

A factsheet discussing the use of barley straw as an alternative method of algae control in fresh water systems is available at the Sussex County Extension Office (302-856-7303). This University of Maryland factsheet is a summary of existing literature on barley straw for algae control in bodies of fresh water.

Although gaining momentum in the United Kingdom, very little research has been completed in this area in the U.S. The University of Maryland and Sea Grant and other organizations have begun to look more closely at this method. Over the past five years, volunteer cooperators have used straw bales in impoundments, especially farm ponds, for algae control. Although based on limited anecdotal information mostly passed word of mouth it was relatively inexpensive and appeared to be safe. In most cases (over 90%), barley straw users have reported reductions in algal problems.


                        Weather Summary

Week of September 10 to September 13 *

(Due to computer problems, data from 9/14-18 is unavailable at this time)

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 88 F on September 12 to 73 F on September 10.
Lows Ranged from 64 F on September 13 to 51 F on September 11.
Soil Temperature:
74 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

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