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Volume 6, Issue 5                                                                                                 April 24, 1998


Vegetables

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Asparagus.

Continue to watch fields for asparagus beetle adults laying eggs on spears throughout fields. Treatments should be applied once eggs can be found on spears. Sevin, Ambush or Pounce will provide control.

Cabbage.

Insect pressure remains low in most fields with the predominant pest being the imported cabbageworm. The first diamondback moths have been caught in pheromone traps so we should see the first larvae in the next 10 to 14 days. Young larvae will first mine between the upper and lower leaf surfaces before moving to the heart of the plants. Treatments should be applied when 5% of the plants are infested with larvae and before larvae move to the heart of the plants. Spin-Tor or a Bt insecticide will provide effective control.

Sweet Corn.

Low levels of dingy cutworm larvae have been detected in the earliest planted fields. Treatments should be applied if you find 10% leaf feeding or 3% cut plants in one-two leaf stage corn. Ambush, Asana, Pounce, or Warrior will provide effective control. Fields should be treated early in the morning or in the early evening when cutworms are close to the soil surface to achieve the best control. If soil conditions are dry in the top inch of soil, sprays should be directed at the base of the plants using at least 10 gallons of water per acre to provide effective control.. *

Strawberry Weed Control For New Plantings - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist ; kee@udel.edu

Devrinol 50DF can be applied to weed-free soil immediately after transplanting strawberries. In previous years, this was not recommended, but with the withdrawl of Dacthal, it is now labeled for use. Apply 2 to 4 pounds/acre, depending on soil type. Heavier soils need more product. Activate with one-half inch sprinkler irrigation the same day as application. Napropamide left on the soil surface is broken down by sunlight. Irrigation moves the herbicide into the soil and prevents breakdown by the sun. Primarily controls annual grasses and suppresses or control certain broadleaf weeds.

Poast can be used through the season for grass escapes at 1 to 2 pints per acre. Crop oil concentrate should be used with Poast at a 1% solution (1 gallon/100 gallons of spray solution or 1 quart/25 gallons of spray solution).

 

Weed Control for Watermelon Transplants on Bare-Ground - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist ; kee@udel.edu

Last week’s issue described early applications (3 to 5 days before planting) of Command and Sinbar for watermelon transplants on bare ground. Unfortunately, these materials are labeled for direct-seeded plantings only and should not be used for transplants. *

 

Vegetable Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Patholgist ; bobmul@udel.edu

Cantaloupe and Watermelon.

To prevent damping-off on cantaloupe and watermelon caused by Pythium apply Ridomil Gold 4E on a 7 inch band over the row. Be sure to control cucumber beetles on cantaloupe to prevent transmission of bacterial wilt. Control is necessary from emergence or transplanting until flowering.

Spinach.

If white rust in spinach is present and fields are several weeks from cutting, apply Kocide LF (1 qt/A) for control. Kocide 4.5 LF is a new formulation that is replacing Kocide LF and is applied at 1.33 pt/ A because of its higher concentration. Research in NJ has shown that for fields close to harvest it is better to apply Aliette 80WDG to avoid potential phytotoxicity from use of copper fungicides close to harvest. *

 

Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu

Field Corn.

During the past week, black cutworm moth activity increased significantly in the following areas: Atlanta, DE; Denton, MD; Goldsboro,MD; Greenwood, DE; Harmony,MD; Milford, DE and Lewistown,MD. Maryland Department of Agriculture trap counts also indicate the counts have significantly increased in the following Maryland locations: Centreville, Church Hill, Easton, Linkwood, Rhodesdale, Trappe, Vienna, Walkertown, and Williamsburg. These counts indicate areas where scouting should be concentrated, especially in later planted fields and situations with heavy broadleaf weed growth before planting. Although low levels of cutworm activity have been detected in the earliest planted fields, the larvae present at this time are generally dingy cutworms , not black cutworm larvae. The moth counts found now will produce larvae and potential problems by early to mid-May. Rescue treatments should be applied if you find 10% leaf feeding or 3% cut plants in one to two leaf stage corn. A pyrethroid will provide effective control. If you are planting corn into a burned-down small grain cover, remember that true armyworms can also be a problem. A pyrethroid tank-mixed with a herbicide applied pre-emergence will provide control.

Small Grains.

We are now seeing cereal leaf beetle egg hatch, with many fields at about 10 – 20% egg hatch. Fields on the eastern shore of Virginia were at this same level last week (week ending April 17) and reached the economic threshold level of 25 eggs and/or larvae per 100 tillers with 50 –60 % egg hatch during the week of April 20. We should expect to see economic levels of cereal leaf beetle by April 27. Aphid populations should be watched once wheat heads have emerged. Parasites and predators are still keeping populations in check in most fields. A treatment will not be needed until you find 20 – 25 aphids per head. True armyworm moth activity and egg laying has remained low except in the Harrington areas were 100 moths were caught in a 4 day period. *

 

Field Crop Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist ; bobmul@udel.edu

Soybeans.

Soybean seed treatments are good insurance when planting soybeans under adverse conditions. Planting into cool, wet soils especially in no-till and dry soils are situations where seed treatments would be beneficial. Normally seed testing 85% or better does not need seed treatment unless planting in adverse conditions. Seed germinating at 75% to 85% should be treated. Seed treatments containing captan, thiram, or carboxin are suggested. Many hopper-box treatments are also available.

Soybean growers were encouraged to soil sample for the soybean cyst nematode in the first issue of Crop Update. This is just a reminder to soil test before planting susceptible soybeans in areas where it occurs. Nematode sample bags are available from the county Extension offices. It makes sense and can save you money. *

Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Wheat Futures Hit New Contract Lows.

July wheat futures declined to new contract lows this past week, with the other wheat future contracts either finishing on or near session lows. The decline in wheat prices is attributed to large supplies, both domestic and in the world. Technical action is driving this market. Fundamentally, there is not enough friendly news to attract buying interest. Even though downside risk in the wheat market looks fairly played out on a daily chart, a look at the weekly and monthly charts shows further downside potential.

USDA’s Response.

In light of the recent down trending wheat market, USDA has announced this week that ways to increase U.S. exports and export financing are being considered. USDA is currently studying many of the mechanisms that have been used in the past to foster export sales, particularly for wheat. Some 30 different programs are being considered. One of those mentioned is a long-dormant program referred to as direct export credits (GSM-5). Using this program, idle since the early 1980’s, or some combination of programs to boost wheat prices is being considered as a result of a recent inquiry made by the National Wheat Growers Association.

Market Strategy.

Besides the export credit programs, there may be some other reasons to believe that wheat prices will eventually rebound. One of those reasons is the "cool-wet-weather" theory. The basic premise behind this theory is that 1998 U.S. wheat yields may be reduced due to the prevailing cool, wet conditions. Wheat and other small grains tend to yield better when general weather conditions are on the dry side. If we believe the theory may hold true for 1998 production and we note that U.S. wheat plantings are down 6% from last year, and at the lowest level in ten years, then we might expect wheat prices to show some promise, thereby, eventually rebounding off of current lows.

Considering current price levels, further wheat sales are not recommended at this time. An individual’s ability to hold out for higher wheat prices may depend upon storage availability.

For those without adequate storage, cash sales can be replaced with the purchase of call options. For assistance in considering the use of call options in your wheat marketing strategy call Carl German at 302-831-1317. *

 

Planting Update for Delaware - Tracy Wootten, Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops; wootten@udel.edu

Wheat is beginning to head out in the southern part of the state. Field corn planting is beginning in Kent and New Castle Counties and continuing in Sussex County. Pea planting is winding down with 75% of the acreage in. The first plantings of processing peas in Sussex County are beginning to bloom, and should be in full bloom by next week. Potato planting is 90-100% completed. Sweet corn planting is ahead of schedule with 25% of the acreage in. Some processors report being 2 weeks ahead of schedule ( 15% of the processing sweet corn acreage was in at this time last year ). Spinach is still being cut. Vine crop growers are busy laying plastic mulch with a few vine crop transplants going in this week in the Laurel area. *

 

What Is In Those Corn Herbicide Pre-mixes? -Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

The following is a summary of the products in commonly used pre-mixes for soil-applied and early postemergence corn herbicides. It is difficult to make direct comparisons because the ratio of atrazine to the chloroacetamides change in all the products. This is meant as a reference point to compare the amount of various products based on the use rate that is appropriate for you.

Pre-Mix Products
Basis 75 DF at 0.33 oz/A 0.67 oz Matrix 25 DF + 0.33 oz of Pinnacle 25 DF
Bicep II 5.9L at 2.0 qt/A 0.83 qt Dual II 7.8E + 1.33 qt atrazine 4L
Bicep II Magnum 5.5L at 1.6 qt/A 0.5 qt Dual II Magnum + 1.2 qt atrazine 4L
Bicep Lite II 4.9L at 2 qt/A 0.83 qt Dual II 7.8E + 0.83 qt atrazine 4L
Bullet 4 ME at 3 qt/A 1.87 qt Micro-Tech 4 ME + 1.125 qt atrazine 4L
FieldMaster at 3.5 qts/A 2 qt Harness + 1.2 qt atrazine 4L + 1.3 pts Roundup
FulTime 4CS at 2.5 qts/A 1.8 pts Surpass 6E + 1 qt atrazine 4L
Guardsman 5L at 1.5 qts/A 0.6 qts Frontier 6E + 1.0 qt atrazine 4L
Harness Xtra 5.6L at 2.0 qt/A 0.8 pts Harness + 1.3 qts atrazine 4L
Surpass 100 5L at 2.5 qt/A 1.2 qts Surpass + 1.3 qts atrazine 4L

*

Weather Summary

Week of April 17 to April 23

Rainfall:
0.18 inches: April 17
0.40 inches: April 18
0.05 inches: April 19
0.20 inches: April 20
0.05 inches: April 23
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 81 F on April 17 to 62 F on April 19.
Lows Ranged from 64 F on April 17 to 38 F on April 23.
Soil Temperature:
57.5 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Local Weather Information can be found on our website: http://www.rec.udel.edu

 

Black Cutworm – Pheromone Trap Catches – 1998 Season

Data Provided by Terra Inc., Bridgeville, DE

Trapping Period : April 10 – April 17, 1998

Information Also Available At: www.udel.edu/IPM

 Location #Moths/7Days Location # Moths/7Days
American Corner, MD

11

Lewistown, MD

22

Argos Corner, DE

1

Magnolia, DE

2

Atlanta, DE

21

Mardela Springs, MD

4

Berlin, MD

0

Marydel, MD

3

Bethel, DE

1

Milford, DE #1

31

Bridgetown, MD

11

Milford, DE #2

0

Bucktown, MD

12

Millsboro, DE

1

Burrisville. MD

0

Milton, DE

0

Cambridge, MD

1

Newark, MD #1

2

Clarksville, MD

3

Newark, MD #2

0

Dagsboro, DE #1

5

New Church, VA

6

Dagsboro, DE #2

0

Oak Orchard, DE

0

Delmar, DE

12

Pocomoke, MD #1

5

Denton, MD

33

Pocomoke, MD #2

2

Easton, MD

15

Preston, MD

8

Eldorado, MD

4

Public Landing, MD

1

Ellendale, DE

2

Queen Anne, MD

14

Farmington, DE

0

Redden, DE

0

Federalsburg, MD

7

Reeds Grove, MD

4

Frankford, DE

5

Reliance, MD

18

Georgetown, DE

7

Rhodesdale, MD

14

Goldsboro, MD

20

Ridgely, MD

11

Greenwood, DE

20

Seaford, DE #1

2

Harmony, MD

39

Seaford, DE #2

11

Hurlock, MD #1

14

Selbyville, DE #1

0

Hurlock, MD #2

9

Selbyville, DE #2

1

Laurel, DE # 1

11

Snow Hill, MD #1

0

Laurel, DE # 2

9

Snow Hill, MD #2

8

Laurel, DE # 3

6

Snow Hill, MD #3

0

Leipsic, DE

4

Trappe, MD

1

Lewes, DE

2

Vernon, DE

14

    Wyoming, DE

4


Crop Diagnostic Field Day

Improving Diagnostic Skills-Correcting Small Grains Production Problems Through Proper Diagnosis

May 21, 1998

7:30 a..m. - 1:00 p.m.

University of Delaware Research & Education Center, Georgetown, Delaware

Weeds Insects Nematodes Fertility Variety Yield Potential

University of Delaware extension personnel will provide hands-on training to improve your troubleshooting skill in small grains. Participants will be involved with problem solving scenarios in a field setting and will be expected to help recommend corrective and preventative solutions.

Three Certified Crop Advisor Continuing Education Units (CEU) will be earned.

Pesticide recertification credits will be earned.

Small Grains Diagnostic Field Day is open to everyone. Prior registration is required. Participation is limited to the first 60 applicants. Minimum sign-up required is 15 applicants. Registration fee is $25.00 per person. Registration deadline is May 15. Checks confirm reservations.

Registration starts at 7:30 a.m. with coffee and donuts in the grove. Training starts at 8:15 a.m. Program will be finished by 1:00 p.m. Lunch provided. Hand lens and sweep nets will be available for use if needed.

For More Information: Contact Mabel Hough at 302-856-7303 or by fax 302-856-1845.


REGISTRATION FOR 1998 CROP DIAGNOSTIC FIELD DAY

NAME:_______________________________________________________________

ADDRESS:____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

PHONE:____________________________ FAX:________________________

Include check for $25 made payable to University of Delaware. Return by May 15.

Mail to: Attn. Mabel Hough, Research & Education Center, R.D 6, Box 48, Georgetown, Delaware 19947


Small Grains Troubleshooting For Producers

Improving Diagnostic Skills-Correcting Small Grains Production Problems

May 21, 1998

3:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.

University of Delaware Research & Education Center, Georgetown, Delaware

Weeds Insects Nematodes Fertility Variety Yield Potential

University of Delaware extension personnel will provide hands-on training to improve your troubleshooting skill in small grains. Participants will be involved with problem solving scenarios in a field setting and will be expected to help recommend corrective and preventative solutions.

Pesticide recertification credits will be earned.

Small Grains Troubleshooting For Producers is open to everyone. Prior registration is required. Participation is limited to the first 60 applicants. Minimum sign-up required is 15 applicants. Registration fee is $15.00 per person. Registration deadline is May 15. Checks confirm reservations.

Registration starts at 2:30 p.m. in the grove. Training starts at 3:00 p.m. Program will be finished by 5:30 p.m. with dinner provided. Hand lens and sweep nets will be available for use if needed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REGISTRATION FOR 1998 SMALL GRAINS TROUBLESHOOTING FOR PRODUCERS

NAME:___________________________________________________

ADDRESS:________________________________________________

________________________________________________

PHONE:___________________ FAX:_______________________

Include check for $15 made payable to University of Delaware. Return by May 15.

Mail to: Attn. Mabel Hough, Research & Education Center, R.D 6, Box 48, Georgetown, Delaware 19947

 


Compiled & Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

 

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin

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