Volume 7, Issue 16                                                                           July 16, 1999


Vegetable Crops

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Peppers.

Maintain a 7-10day schedule on all peppers with fruit that is inch in size or larger. Orthene will provide corn borer and pepper maggot control. Lannate or a pyrethroid plus dimethoate will control the same insect complex.

Snap Beans.
Leafhoppers and thrips remain active in seedling stage snap beans. A treatment is needed if you find 5-6 thrips per leaflet or 5 leafhoppers per sweep. If both insects are present, the threshold of each should be reduced by the level for each insect. Processing snap beans should be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with Orthene (1 1/3 lb/acre) for corn borer control. A third application with Lannate will be needed within 5 to 7 days from harvest. As corn borer moth catches increase, you will need between 2 and 4 sprays after the pin spray. Also, as corn earworm catches increase, you will need to tank mix Asana with Orthene at the pin spray to achieve control of corn borers and corn earworm. Continue to spray fresh market snap beans on a weekly basis with Lannate starting at the pin stage and continue until 5-7 days from harvest.

Sweet Corn.

Fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-4 day schedule throughout the state.


Vegetable Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Patholgist ; bobmul@udel.edu

Vegetables.

Be on the lookout for root knot nematodes. Along with soybean cyst nematode, root knot can be diagnosed in the field by the presence of the nematodes on the roots. Root knot produces swellings on the roots of susceptible crops such as cucumbers, cantaloupes, carrots, beans, and many other vegetable crops. At this time of the season the first indication may be some stunting in irregular areas in an infested field. Digging the plants carefully at this time can reveal the swellings on the roots called galls or knots that form around the developing female root knot nematode. Little can be done after galling is seen. Frequent irrigation can help minimize the damage to the infected root systems. Check for root knot by soil sampling fields to be planted to susceptible vegetables in the fall before planting the crop. Fumigants or insecticide/nematicides such as Vydate can be used before planting to reduce the nematodes.

 

Picture taken from Disease and Pests of Muskmelons and Watermelons, Richard Latin, Extension Specialist Plant Pathology, Purdue Univeristy Cooperative Extension Service, West Lafayette, IN, BP-44

Sweet corn.

Common rust is present in some plantings of susceptible sweet corn. If rust is seen before whorl stage, fungicide control may be beneficial. Scouting young sweet corn for rust is highly recommended.

Beans.

Snaps and Limas - Be sure to apply Ridomil Gold PC11G in the seed furrow at planting to prevent damping-off caused by Pythium and Rhizoctonia, especially in double-cropped situations following beans or peas. If Pythium is the only concern apply Ridomil Gold EC in a 7-in. band over the row at seeding.

Carrots.

Apply Bravo, Terranil, or Rovral (Alternaria only) on a 7-10 schedule for control of Alternaria leaf spot.


LATE BLIGHT REPORT

DSV accumulations as of July 11 , 1999 are as follows:

Location/

Emergence Date

DSV’s

July

7

DSV’s

July

11

Recommendation

P-Day

Value for Early Blight Prediction*

Baldwin – 4/19

85

85

10-day, mid rate

568/594

Jackewicz – 4/30

77

77

10-day, mid rate

515/543

Art Wicks – 4/26

76

76

10-day, mid rate

538/566

Ken/Chris Wicks – 5/3

71

71

10-day, mid rate

501/530

*bold is current value/ regular is previous report value.

For early blight susceptible varieties the high rate of a protectant fungicide is recommended. Disease pressure from foliar diseases is very low at the present time. Bacterial stem rot continues to be widespread across all varieties.


Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu and Phil Shields University of Maryland; ps136@umail.umd.edu

MELCAST for Fungicide Application on Watermelons.

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Below are the EFI values from weather stations located on the Eastern Shore July 7 – July 14. Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

EFI Values for 1999

Location

7/7

7/8

7/9

7/10

7/11

7/12

7/13

7/14

U of M, LESREC
Salisbury,MD

0

1

3

0

1

1

6

2

Wootten Farms, Galestown,MD

1

1

2

0

1

0

5

0

Mark Collins,
Laurel, DE

1

2

3

0

1

1

5

0

Vincent Farms Laurel, DE

0

0

2

0

2

1

6

1

D C Farms,
Bridgeville, DE

1

2

1

1

1

0

5

0

Balvin Brinsfield,
Vienna, MD

1

0

2

0

1

1

6

1

Charles Wright,
Mardela Springs, MD

1

1

2

0

1

1

6

1

U of D, REC Georgetown, DE

0

2

2

0

1

1

5

1

Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day.


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

                  July 8 – July 14, 1998

Quantity Produce Price
51,532 Cantaloupes  
 

Athena

0.25-1.25
 

Super Star

0.30-0.70
 

Passport

0.30- 0.75
9008 Sugar Babies 0.50-1.40
15275 Watermelons  
 

Crimson Sweet

 
 

15 up

0.75-1.65
 

20 up

0.75-2.05
 

25 up

1.20-2.90
 

Sangria

 
 

15up

1.50-1.75
 

20 up

2.00-2.45
 

Royal Sweet

 
 

15 up

1.45
 

Mardi Gras

 
 

15 up

1.00-1.50
 

20 up

1.60-2.05
 

25 up

1.35-2.95
 

Stargazer (30 up)

3.00
 

Seedless

2.70
18 Peppers  
 

Cherry

 
 

Green

8.00-10.00
 

Red

8.00-10.00
2 Banana 3.00-6.50
2176 Tomatoes  
 

Red

3.00-14.00
 

Pink

4.00-14.00
1091 Sweet Corn Doz. 0.60-1.50
72 Cucumbers 3.00-7.50
136 Squash  
 

Yellow

3.00-7.00
 

Green

3.00-7.50
28 Potatoes  
 

Red

3.00-9.00
16 Peaches 5.00-6.00
3 Cherries 14.00
24 Stringbeans 5.00-15.00
4 Lima Beans 28.00-31.00

 


Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu

Field Corn.

Grasshopper populations have started to increase, especially in corn planted into small grain covers. In corn, a treatment is justified if you find 5-8 grasshoppers per square yard. Sevin and Warrior are both labeled and have provided the most consistent control. As corn begins to silk, watch for Japanese beetles and corn rootworm adult beetles feeding on silking corn. The decision to treat should be based on the number of beetles per silk as well as how far you are in the pollination period. In recent years, large numbers of beetles feeding on silks before 50% pollination have resulted in yield losses, especially along field edges. A treatment is recommended on silking corn if you can find 4-5 beetles per plant and they are clipping silks to less than inch long before 50% pollination.

Soybeans.

Continue to sample fields for mites. Although the rain may help to slow population explosions, it will not control populations at or above threshold levels. In addition, edge treatments may not be effective this year. In many cases, mites can already be found throughout fields as a result of the windy weather conditions. A treatment will be needed when you find 20-30 mites per leaflet and/or 10% of the plants exhibiting mite damage (light stippling not severe damage).


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Loan Deficiency Payments Revisited
LDP's that have been authorized since 1985 were activated in 1998 due to low commodity prices. The crops grown in Delaware for which LDP's are available are: wheat, barley, corn, oats, grain sorghum, and soybeans. Market prices in 1998 caused producers to use LDP's in record numbers
and the same holds true for 1999. Given below is selected information on how the program works.

STORED GRAIN LDP'S...If a producer has grain stored either at home or in a warehouse, form CCC-666 must be signed to "lock in" the payment rate. The producer is paid the rate in effect on the day the form is signed. The producer must have beneficial interest (title/control) of the grain on
the day the form is signed in order to be eligible for payment.

FIELD DIRECT LDP'S...For grain delivered directly out of the field, producers are paid the rate in effect on the day(s) the grain is delivered to the buyer. Form CCC-709 must be signed BEFORE BEGINNING HARVEST to be eligible for field direct LDP's. The producer will be paid on the basis of each day grain is delivered for which an LDP is being made.

LDP payment rates are in effect when the price at the applicable terminal for the crop is lower than the county loan rate for that crop. A general guideline for Delaware loan rates is as follows: Barley @ $1.43 per bu., Corn @ $2.10 per bu., Wheat @ $2.67 per bu., Grain Sorghum @ $3.06 per cwt., Oats @ $1.19 per bu., Soybeans @ $5.36 per bu.

* Loan rates slightly vary by county.

Remember that LDP's are also available on crops used for feed and seed. Measurement may be required in lieu of other production evidence. When signing for an LAP the producer agrees to forego a loan on the grain, taking the LDP instead. Loans are available for grain that is not LDP'd. Taking a loan could possibly save money when it come time to redeem the loan. See your county FSA office for further details.

This information was furnished by the New Castle County FSA office.


Upcoming Meetings…

AGRONOMIC CROPS FIELD DAY

TUESDAY, JULY 27, 1999

9:15 am - 1:30 pm (includes lunch)

Location: Marl Pit Road (Rd. 429, approximately 2 mile east of the intersection with Del. Rt. 71/U.S. Rt. 301 (Armstrong=s Corner). Look for the University of Delaware signs on the left.

New Castle County Extension, The Delaware Crop Improvement Association, and the Delaware Soybean Board invite you to join your fellow farmers and other members of the agricultural community as our Extension Specialists lead discussions of this year's field trials to include:

Small Grain

Soybeans

Corn

We expect to have the 1998-99 wheat and barley variety trial results for distribution and discussion. There will be time to discuss your current issues.

A Roast Pig Sandwich and Sweet Corn Lunch will be provided by the sponsoring organizations.

CREDIT toward Delaware pesticide license recertification (Ag Plant category) and CCA (Certified Crop Advisor) CEUs will be awarded.

The meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome. For more information or for special consideration in accessing this meeting, please contact the Extension Office at 302-831-2506.

HOPE TO SEE YOU THERE!

Carl P. Davis

Extension Agent, Agriculture


                  Weather Summary

Week of July 9 to July 13

Rainfall:
0.10 inch: July 10, 1999
0.43 inches: July 12, 1999
1.10 inches: July 13, 1999
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 97F on July 9 to 73 F on July 13.
Lows Ranged from 64F on July 9 to 58F on July 12.
Soil Temperature:
77 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.


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