Volume 7, Issue 18                                                                                                 July 30, 1999


Vegetables

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

New Insecticide Registration.

Capture, a pyrethroid insecticide from FMC, received a federal registration on lima beans, snap beans, peas, cole crops, cucurbits and eggplant last Friday (July 23). Sweet corn is also on the federal label; however, the label states that use is prohibited in all coastal counties so it Can Not be used on sweet corn in Delaware. In our snap bean and cabbage trials, it has provided good control of corn borer, corn earworm, lygus species and cabbage looper.

Lima Beans.

In addition to leafhoppers, thrips and mites, lima bean fields with pin pods present should also be sampled for corn earworms, lygus bugs and stinkbugs. With the recent increase in corn earworm moth activity, we should begin to see larvae in the next week to 10 days. A treatment should be applied if you find one corn earworm per 6 foot of row or 15 tarnished plant bugs and/or stink bugs per 50 sweeps. In addition to Lannate, Capture can now be used to control all 3 insects on lima beans.

Melons.

As noted above, we have just received a label for the use of Capture on cucurbits. In areas where mite control is still needed and you have not gotten control with currently available miticides, you should consider Capture for mite control. Our 1999 data on soybeans shows that it will provide effective control; however, it must be used at a rate of 5.12 – 6.4 ounces per acre. In addition, you may need to apply 2 applications spaced 5-7 days apart. You can not apply more than 2 applications after bloom and it has a 3-day pre-harvest interval.

Peppers.
Maintain a 7-10 day schedule for corn borer control. Aphid populations continue to increase, especially in fields where only a pyrethoid has been used. Since corn earworm and aphid populations are both starting to increase, Lannate or Orthene should be used to provide aphid, corn earworm and corn borer control.

Snap Beans.
Processing snap beans should be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with Orthene for corn borer control. Capture applied at these same timings has also provided corn borer and corn earworm control. In the Georgetown, Harrington and Seaford areas, the addition of Asana or Capture for corn earworm control will be needed at the pin spray if Orthene is used. At this time, 2 applications of Lannate or Capture from the pin stage to harvest will also be needed.

Sweet Corn.
Fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 3-day schedule throughout the state. We are also seeing aphid activity increasing in Bt sweet corn fields. Although no thresholds are available, an application of Lannate may be needed to control aphids and prevent husk quality problems. Fall armyworm moth activity has increased. All late-planted fields should still be checked during the whorl stage for fall armyworm feeding. A treatment is recommended if 15% of the plants are infested. In many cases, 2 applications will be needed to provide effective control. Larvin (30 oz per acre) and Warrior (3.84 oz per acre) have provided the best control in recent years.



Hollow Heart on Watermelons
-
Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, kee@udel.edu

Watermelon producers are reporting more hollow heart problems than we can remember, especially on the first set (crown set). Hollow heart of watermelon is the separation of the inner part of the fruit into distinct segments, which leaves hollow areas inside the fruit at maturity. It is known that this disorder does occur more frequently in the first fruit, and later sets should not have as much hollow heart. Hollow heart is linked to excess nitrogen fertilization and delayed harvesting. It occurs during conditions of rapid fruit growth, when the rind is growing more rapidly than the inner regions of the fruit. Excess irrigation may also contribute to the disorder.

Although some varieties have a greater tendency to hollow heart, this year the problem has gone across many varieties. Avoiding excess nitrogen applications and crediting not only fertilizer nitrogen but residual poultry manure nitrogen needs to be considered.

We experienced relatively cool nights and moderate day temperatures throughout most of June, then were thrown into intense heat of early July (100 degrees). This probably had something to do with the heavy incidence of hollow heart this year. Rapid growth conditions (high temperatures and good irrigation) forced melons to grow quickly, creating the hollow heart.


Vegetable Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Patholgist ; bobmul@udel.edu

LATE BLIGHT REPORT

DSV accumulations as of July 21 , 1999 are as follows:

Location/

Emergence Date

DSV’s

July

21

DSV’s

July

19

Recommendation

P-Day

Value for Early Blight Prediction*

Baldwin – 4/19

91

89

10-day, low rate

654/ 671

Jackewicz – 4/30

79

78

10-day, low rate

601/ 618

Art Wicks – 4/26

77

76

10-day, low rate

622/ 639

Ken/Chris Wicks – 5/3

72

71

10-day, low rate

585/ 603

*bold is current value/ regular is previous report value.

For early blight susceptible varieties the high rate of a protectant fingicide is recommended. Disease pressure from foliar diseases is very low at the present time. Use your judgement when applying fungicides at this time of the season.

I have seen leak caused by the fungus Pythium on tubers dug on Tuesday. The heat and extra water from compaction in spray tracks favored infection. The stem end decay is dark when the tubers are cut. The flesh is a cheesy consistency and water can be easily squeezed from the tubers, thus the term "leak".

Please Note: There will be no report on Monday. We are moving out of our offices to temporary quarters while renovations are being made to Townsend Hall (Ag Hall). I will try to have a report to you as soon as I am relocated and the computer is functional again.


Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu and Phil Shields University of Maryland; ps136@umail.umd.edu

 

MELCAST for Fungicide Application on Watermelons.

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Below are the EFI values from weather stations located on the Eastern Shore July 21 – July 28. Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

NOTE: THE WEATHER MACHINE AT BRIDGEVILLE MALFUNCTIONED. THEREFORE, THERE IS NO DATA FROM 7/20 TO 7/23.

EFI Values for 1999

Location

7/21

7/22

7/23

7/24

7/25

7/26

7/27

7/28

U of M, LESREC
Salisbury,MD

4

3

3

4

1

4

5

4

Wootten Farms, Galestown,MD

1

3

2

2

0

2

3

3

Mark Collins,
Laurel, DE

1

5

3

4

0

4

4

4

Vincent Farms Laurel, DE

0

4

3

3

0

2

2

3

D C Farms,
Bridgeville, DE

-

-

-

2

0

4

3

2

Balvin Brinsfield,
Vienna, MD

1

3

3

2

0

4

3

3

Charles Wright,
Mardela Springs, MD

1

3

3

2

0

4

4

4

U of D, REC Georgetown, DE

2

4

3

4

1

3

4

1

Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day.


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

                  July 22 – July 28, 1999

Quantity Produce Price
74163 Cantaloupes  
 

Athena

0.25-0.85
 

Super Star

0.25-0.90

Passport

0.30-0.40
10980 Sugar Babies 0.50-1.95
905 Honeydews 0.40-1.45
219613 Watermelons  
 

Crimson Sweet

 
 

12up

1.60
 

15 up

1.00-1.90
 

20 up

1.30-2.30
 

25 up

1.45-4.05
 

Sangria

 
 

12up

0.70-1.00
 

15up

0.60-2.40
 

20up

1.30-2.80
 

25up

1.25-2.75

Royal Sweet

 

15up

0.90
 

20up

1.50-1.95
 

25up

2.10
 

Mardi Gras

 
 

20 up

1.40-2.20
 

Royal Majesty

 
 

15up

0.75-1.20
 

20up

1.35
 

Summer Time

 
 

20 up

1.80
 

All Sweet

 
 

25up

1.85-2.20
 

Seedless

0.60-3.50
52 Peppers  
 

Green

3.00-8.50
  Banana 9.50
3 Eggplant 5.00-6.50
1953 Tomatoes  
 

Red

3.00-13.50
 

Pink

3.00-11.50
 

Cherry

3.00-9.00
78 Sweet Corn Doz. 0.75-1.45
231 Cucumbers 3.00-7.50
136 Squash  
 

Yellow

3.00-7.00
 

Green

3.00-7.00
70 Potatoes  

Red

3.50-7.00
          White 2.60
107 Blackberries 1.30-1.95
2 Lima Beans 23.00-30.00
1 Okra 9.00
11 Peaches 6.00
15 Nectarines 6.00

 


Field Crops

Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Is There Hope ?

The bottom is in or at least close! Corn, wheat, and soybeans are all showing signs of technical bottom. The past two weeks have witnessed continued hot, dry weather in the central and eastern Corn Belt and tropical rains in the northern and western part of the Corn Belt. Problem is each time it rains anywhere near the Chicago Board of Trade the commodity markets take a bath. It is my understanding that current price levels should prove out to be the bottom for this marketing year. The only thing that could change that statement from materializing is a good soaking rain in the central and eastern part of the Corn Belt, that would need to arrive this week. So what do we do now?

Be Patient!

I know that by now this sounds like a broken record. The current situation that we have been dealt dictates that patiences becomes key to marketing the 1999 corn and soybean crop. Dry land Delaware farmers would not be particularly wise to forward contract anything right now even if a pricing opportunity existed. Second, USDA recently reduced the projected size of the 1999 national corn crop, and if it does not rain in the eastern belt - significantly - this week my guess is that the size of the crop will be reduced again.

The predominant bearish news in the corn and soybean markets since the turn of the calendar year has centered around the size of old crop carryover and the anticipated near-record crop(s) on the way. That is why the markets have been trending lower and December corn futures dropped from $2.40 to $1.95 per bushel. Meanwhile, November soybean futures dropped from $5.80 to $4.10. It is generally believed that the mainstay of the bearish news has been discounted in this market and any surprises are going to be bullish. Incidentally, corn and soybean markets are now experiencing 20 year lows. It should be noted that even with normal yields, $3.00 corn and $7.00 soybeans are absolute minimums for grain farming to be profitable.

Some Key Points to Recognize:

  1. Don’t get trigger happy. This market is just confirming a bottom and the move to the upside is not over yet. Do not sell the first rally after a bear market!
  2. Commodity funds are said to hold very large short positions. That means they scramble to cover their positions, prices will rally more sharply than most people anticipate.
  3. Plan to LDP early and sell late! Contact your county FSA office to determine the best way to get this done!
  4. Usage for feed grains and oilseeds is picking up. This is brought on by low commodity prices. Users see real value in feed grains and soy products at the current price levels.
  5. Begin looking for any opportunity to get back into the market for previously sold grain.
  6. Do not expect too much of a rally in corn or soybeans. We have to much on hand and a sizable crop coming.
  7. Contact your state Extension Specialist for information on any breaking market opportunities that come up.
  8. Users of feed grains and oilseeds would do well to lock in the price of their feed needs now.

*Excerpts taken from the Brock Report


Upcoming Meetings…

Soybean and Agronomic Crops Twilight Tour

August 2, 1999

U of D Research & Education Center

5:00 p.m. Dinner

6:00-8:00 p.m. Tour

The Novartis Technology Van will be available for viewing.

For more information, contact Mabel Hough at 302/856-7303.

 

University of Delaware Farm and Home Field Day

August 11, 1999

8:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m.

For more information: contact

Mark Isaacs or Jay Windsor at

(302) 856-7303.

 

Watermelon Twilight Meeting

August 11, 1999

5:30 p.m.

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

Seedless Variety, Fungicide, and Miticide Trials on display.

Dinner will be provided.

For more information, contact Edna Marvil at 302-856-7303.


                 Weather Summary

Week of July 22 to July 28

Rainfall:
0.40 inches: July 22, 1999
0.60 inches: July 26, 1999
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 93F on July 28 to 86 F on July 26.
Lows Ranged from 74F on July 25 to 66F on July 27.
Soil Temperature:
84F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.