Volume 7, Issue 19                                                                                           August 6, 1999


Vegetables

Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu and Phil Shields University of Maryland; ps136@umail.umd.edu

MELCAST for Fungicide Application on Watermelons.

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Below are the EFI values from weather stations located on the Eastern Shore July 28– August 4. Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

EFI Values for 1999

Location

7/28

7/29

7/30

7/31

8/1

8/2

8/3

8/4

U of M, LESREC
Salisbury,MD

4

2

3

3

3

0

3

3

Wootten Farms, Galestown,MD

3

0

2

3

2

1

0

0

Mark Collins,
Laurel, DE

4

0

3

4

5

4

2

3

Vincent Farms Laurel, DE

3

0

2

2

3

2

1

2

D C Farms,
Bridgeville, DE

2

1

3

3

3

4

1

2

Balvin Brinsfield,
Vienna, MD

3

0

3

2

2

1

0

2

Charles Wright,
Mardela Springs, MD

4

0

3

4

3

0

2

3

U of D, REC Georgetown, DE

3

2

3

3

2

1

3

1

Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day.


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

July 29 – August 4, 1999

Quantity Produce Price
39,182 Cantaloupes  
 

Athena

0.25-0.80
 

Super Star

0.30-0.55

Cordell

0.25-0.70
10,514 Sugar Babies 0.35-1.75
894 Honeydews 0.30-1.05
396,585 Watermelons  
 

Crimson Sweet

 
 

12 up

0.50-1.35
 

15 up

0.75-1.75
 

20 up

0.75-2.00
 

25 up

1.25-2.35
 

30 up

3.00
 

Sangria

 
 

12 up

0.50-1.50
 

15 up

0.60-2.15
 

20 up

1.00-2.25
 

25 up

1.35-2.20

30 up

2.15

Royal Sweet

 

15 up

0.75-1.15
 

20 up

1.20
 

Royal Star

 
 

20 up

1.25
 

25 up

1.55-2.30
 

All Sweet

 
 

20 up

1.50
 

25 up

1.10-1.55
  Seedless 0.50-2.30
63 Peppers  
 

Green

4.00-14.50
5 Eggplant 4.00
1415 Tomatoes  
 

Red

3.00-8.00
45 Sweet Corn Doz. 0.65-0.75
80 Cucumbers 3.00-9.00
202 Squash  
 

Yellow

3.00-6.50
 

Green

4.00-12.50
7 Potatoes  

Red

4.50
  White 3.00
4 Blackberries 1.50
67 Peaches 4.00-5.00

Field Crops

Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

What's Holding Commodity Markets In Check?
Not much has changed since last week, except for the fact that it has not rained in the problem areas of the corn belt and chances for corn and soybean yields to recover or to be salvaged are withering away. Market traders in the commodity markets are still wary about bidding commodities drastically higher because of looming stocks of old-crop corn and soybeans. Much of those stocks need to be moved to market between now and harvest. This is why the markets are currently at these depressed levels, even with the recent rally, and why basis levels continue to widen.

Further, it is evident that the market has not discounted the significant damage done to crop yields in the eastern corn belt, some of the central corn belt, and the outter fringes of the corn belt. Many areas will not be helped by rain at this stage.

Key points to remember:
1. The wheat market has already made a bottom. This is the time to sit on unpriced wheat.
2. The corn and soybean markets may well have completed making bottoms.

Midwest basis levels are likely to stay wide into early harvest, making storage likely to pay big dividends. Local basis levels need to be considered before making any decision to store on the eastern shore.


Targeting Irrigation - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

Derby Walker, Jr. Extension Educator, Sussex County; derby@udel.edu

Questions have been raised in the last week on the advisability of moving mobile irrigation units (towable pivots and travelling guns) out of corn and into soybeans. We can think of several factors that you should consider in making this decision.

First of all, do not consider pulling irrigation off of corn if it has not yet begun to dent. A large proportion of the final yield has been set by the time corn begins to dent so moving irrigation over to soybeans long enough to apply at least one good irrigation would not reduce final corn yield by very much. If little moisture reserve is in the soil, you should consider going back to the corn as quickly as possible to keep the corn progressing toward maturation and to minimize any yield reduction. If there is a reserve of moisture in the corn field soil, you will be able to stay in beans longer.

Another factor that will affect your decision is the stage of growth in the soybeans. Early-maturing soybeans under severe drought stress are showing little if any pod development even though they have been blooming for two or more weeks. Early-maturing bean varieties are indeterminate and will bloom over a long period of time but even this period is limited. To have any yield potential, enough moisture must become available to allow pod set to occur before the beans cease flowering. Late-maturing varieties (some group IV and the group V and higher) are determinate and will bloom for a shorter period of time and are even more critical to have moisture available before the final blooms appear. After pod set, drought conditions can again reduce yields by reducing seed size or causing pods to abort so irrigation or rainfall will be critical during this period as well.

Along with whether the beans are still flowering, the size of the plant also will impact your decision. Many full-season beans especially in southern Delaware are good size and reached canopy closure well before they bloomed so their maximum yield potential is quite high. In other areas of the state, beans never attained much size and the best yield possible may be only 20 to 30 bushels per acre. This also is the case for many non-irrigated double-cropped beans. The maximum yield potential should be factored in to your decision.

Another factor will be the expected price you will get for soybeans versus corn. If the corn is at early dent, the soil is dry (especially the subsoil), and it will take a couple of days to get back to the corn after moving to the beans, you may figure on a 5 to 10 percent yield loss on the corn crop. If the beans are in serious trouble, irrigation may be the difference between no crop and a harvestable crop. Put the pencil to the problem, and try to determine the effect on your bottom line.

A final factor that you may want to consider is your market commitment. If you have marketed the soybean crop at 30 or 40 bushels per acre and your corn is at early dent and the soybeans are under significant drought stress, you will want to seriously consider using your movable irrigation units to help boost soybean yield potential to your marketed level.

Keep in mind that for corn not yet at early dent, you should keep the irrigation on the corn.


Texas Panicum, Soybeans, and Drought Stress - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

Recently, Turp Garrett, Worcester County Ag Agent, and Tony Keen, Independent Consultant, asked me to look at several soybean fields in Maryland. Areas of soybeans had died in either strips or spots in the fields. Other soybean plants were showing significant stress, yellowing, leaf drop, or, in cases where at least some rain had been received, some renewed growth. All bean varieties were Roundup Ready and had been sprayed with Roundup Ultra. The first area we looked at had crabgrass plants (mostly dead) in the areas where the soybean stand had been thinned to only an occasional plant but this field also had soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) at higher numbers in the bad areas. In the other two fields, thin stands or dead plants seemed associated with denser stands of Texas Panicum and SCN was not involved. All fields showed severe water stress at least in the bad areas. A question arose as to whether Texas Panicum, especially as it died, was having an alleopathic impact on the survival of the Roundup Ready soybeans.

If you know about such an effect, have observed other fields that are losing soybean stands where Texas Panicum has been killed, or have seen fields where the Texas Panicum had no effect on soybean survival, please email me with the details and location of the field(s). Or, you can write me at Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19717-1303. We would like to know if this problem exists at other locations or on non-Roundup Ready varieties. Thanks for your help.


Attention:

Delaware and Maryland Farmers

Commercial Forage Production Field Day

Establishing and Maintaining Alfalfa and other Forage Crops

Date: Tuesday, August 24, 1999

Place: Thomas Farms, 896 Sandy Bend Road, Marydel, DE

Time: 9:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M.

Who Should Come: All commercial producers interested in alfalfa, grass, and mixed hay production; those interested in exploring forage production as a business; and farmers currently growing forages for livestock feed or for sale as hay.

All Delaware and Maryland farmers interested in forage production are invited to attend a field day on establishing and maintaining alfalfa and other forage crops. This is the first of four educational meetings on commercial forage production to be held this coming year to include marketing, production, and equipment. This field day, sponsored by the University of Delaware and University of Maryland Cooperative Extension services, will be held on Tuesday, August 24, 1999 at Thomas Farms, 896 Sandy Bend Road, Marydel, DE from 9:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. This meeting will focus on the establishment stage for alfalfa and other hay and forage species as well as maintenance of forage stands.

Topics will include:

Talks and demonstrations will be presented by University of Delaware and University of Maryland researchers, specialists, and agents. We will have industry representatives to talk about varieties and there will also be some equipment on hand to look at and demonstrate. There will also be a chance to see irrigated alfalfa production.

Please register in advance by calling Kent County, DE Cooperative Extension Office at (303) 697-4000 by August 23, 1999. Anyone that is interested is welcome to attend. For additional information or special assistance in accessing this meeting contact Gordon Johnson at (302) 697-4000. Hope to see you there!

Gordon Johnson                                                           John Hall

Extension Ag Agent, Kent Co., DE                           Co. Extension Dir., Ag Science Kent Co., MD


Upcoming Meetings…

University of Delaware Farm and Home Field Day

August 11, 1999

8:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m.

For more information: contact

Mark Isaacs or Jay Windsor at

(302) 856-7303.

 

Watermelon Twilight Meeting

August 11, 1999

5:30 p.m.

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

Seedless Variety, Fungicide, and Miticide Trials on display. Dinner will be provided. Please register in advance for the meeting by August 9. For more information, contact Edna Marvil at 302-856-7303.

 

Commercial Forage Production Field Day

Establishing and Maintaining Alfalfa and other Forage Crops

Date: Tuesday, August 24, 1999

Place: Thomas Farms, 896 Sandy Bend Road, Marydel, DE

Time: 9:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M.

Please register in advance by calling Kent County, DE Cooperative Extension Office at (303) 697-4000 by August 23, 1999. Anyone that is interested is welcome to attend. For additional information or special assistance in accessing this meeting contact Gordon Johnson at (302) 697-4000.


                   Weather Summary

Week of July 28 to August 4

Rainfall:

None

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 97F on July 31 to 85 F on August 4.
Lows Ranged from 77F on August 1 to 60F on August 4.
Soil Temperature:
86 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.


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