Volume 7, Issue 23                                                                                            September 3, 1999


Vegetables

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Lima Beans.

Corn earworm larvae can be found ranging in size from " to 1 inches long. Controls are needed if you find one larva per 6 foot of row. If Lannate is used at this time, you will need 2-3 pts/acre. The Capture rate is 2.56 3 ozs per acre. Due to the higher than normal corn earworm pressure, two applications of either product may be needed. Be sure to re-check fields within one week of spraying.

Peppers.

All peppers should be sprayed on a 5-7 day schedule for corn borer, corn earworm, and fall armyworm and aphid control. Be sure to check the Crop Pest Hotline for the most recent trap catches in your area.

Snap Beans.

Processing snap beans should still be sprayed at the bud and pin stages with Orthene for corn borer control. Capture or Asana should be combined with Orthene at the pin spray to control corn earworm. After the pin spray, sprays are needed on a 4-day schedule until harvest. Be sure to check the Crop Pest Hotline for the most recent trap catches in your area.

Spinach.

Webworms and beet armyworm can both be found feeding in spinach fields throughout the state. In most fields, webworms are the predominant species at this time. Spintor, Confirm, a Bt-insecticide, Ambush or Pounce can be used when spinach is less than 3 inches in diameter. Controls for webworms should be applied before significant webbing has occurred. If the beet armyworm is the predominant species, Spintor or Confirm should be used.

Sweet Corn.

Fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2-3 day schedule throughout the state. Be sure to check the Crop Pest Hotline for the most recent trap catches in your area.


Laurel Farmer's Auction Market Report

August 26, 1999 September 1, 1999

Quantity

Produce

Price

6,128

Cantaloupes

 
 

Athena

0.25-1.35

 

Super Star

1.35

Eclipse

0.75-1.05

1547

Sugar Babies

0.30-1.15

 

Crenshaws

 

577

Honeydews

0.40-0.90

 

Yellow Dolls

 

357,860

Watermelons

 
 

Crimson Sweet

 
 

        12 up

0.40-0.55

 

        15 up

0.50-1.15

 

        20 up

0.60-1.15

 

Sangria

 
 

       12 up

0.40

 

       15 up

0.50-1.25

       20 up

0.60-1.35

 

       25 up

0.75-1.35

 

30 up

1.25

 

All Sweet

 
 

15 up

0.50-1.05

20 up

0.85-1.50

25 up

1.00-1.20

 

Royal Sweet

 
 

       20 up

0.60

 

Jubilee

 
 

      15 up

0.75

 

Royal Majesty

 
 

     12 up

0.40

 

     15 up

0.60

 

Seedless

0.50-1.55

119

Peppers

 
 

Green

4.00-7.50

 

Red

4.00-10.00

 

Banana

3.00

 

Cayenne

3.00

 

Jalapeno

5.00

31

Eggplant

3.00-6.00

1330

Tomatoes

 
 

Red

3.00-15.00

 

Pink

3.00-15.00

28

Cucumbers

2.00-15.50

174

Squash

 
 

Yellow

3.00-10.50

 

Green

4.00-12.00

21

Potatoes

 
 

Red

5.00-7.00

11

Okra

2.00-6.50

26

Lima Beans

5.00-28.00

5

Stringbeans

8.00-9.00

85

Peaches

4.50-12.00

37

Sweet Potatoes

6.50-12.00

77

Gourds

0.75-8.50

328

Mexican Hats

0.50-0.70

118

Pumpkins

0.50-9.00


Vegetable Diseases - Kate Everts, Extension Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; everts@udel.edu and Phil Shields University of Maryland; ps136@umail.umd.edu

Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

Downy mildew has been found in pumpkins on the Delmarva peninsula as a result of cool wet weather and arrival of windblown sporangia from the south. Look for chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves and a gray to brown fuzz on the lower side of the leaf. Conidia of the fungus will be visible (with a hand lens) as tiny black spots if weather conditions are favorable. Scout fields and when downy mildew is observed apply Ridomil Gold/Bravo or Ridomil Gold/Copper (1.5 to 2 lbs/A). On alternate weeks apply Bravo or Quadris.

 

MELCAST for Fungicide Application on Watermelons.

Do not use MELCAST if there is a disease outbreak in your field, it is a preventative program. Below are the EFI values from weather stations located on the Eastern Shore August 25 September 1. Any questions please call Phil Shields at (410) 742-8788 or e-mail: ps136@umail.umd.edu

EFI Values for 1999

Location

8/25

8/26

8/27

8/28

8/29

8/30

8/31

9/1

U of M, LESREC
Salisbury,MD

3

8

3

5

5

1

0

1

Wootten Farms, Galestown,MD

0

8

4

4

4

0

0

0

Mark Collins,
Laurel, DE

3

8

4

5

5

0

0

0

Vincent Farms Laurel, DE

4

8

3

4

4

0

0

0

D C Farms,
Bridgeville, DE

0

8

5

4

5

0

0

0

Balvin Brinsfield,
Vienna, MD

0

8

3

3

4

0

0

0

Charles Wright,
Mardela Springs, MD

4

8

2

5

5

0

0

0

U of D, REC Georgetown, DE

4

6

4

 

7

2

 

0

Watermelon Fields should be sprayed with a fungicide when 30 EFI values have been accumulated by the weather station nearest your fields. Add 2 points for every overhead irrigation. After a fungicide spray, reset your counter to 0 and start over. If a spray has NOT been applied in 14 days, apply a fungicide and reset the counter to zero. The first and last day above can be partial days so use the larger EFI value of this report and other reports for any specific day.


Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu

Soybeans.

Corn earworm pressure remains well above threshold (3 larvae per 25 sweeps in narrow row beans or 5 per 25 sweeps in wide row soybeans) in many fields in Kent and Sussex counties. Moths continue to be found laying eggs in double cropped fields throughout the state. A pyrethroid will provide your most cost-effective control. In addition, applications by air or ground will provide effective control, even if beans have closed their canopies.


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Grain Markets Await September Crop Report
The grain markets have had great difficulty finding direction this past month. On August 31st we received a slight indicator of 'hope' in terms of seeing some positive price action, for 1999 corn and soybean contracts. Soybeans are called the one to watch after Tuesday's double digit gains, as weather forecasts aren't calling for much rain in the midwest and weekly crop condition ratings were said to catch commodity traders by surprise because of the slight drop in the ratings. Actually the USDA weekly crop condition reports have declined slightly each week, since the release of the August crop report. Other factors are developing that are proving to be slightly price positive to the grain and soybean markets. Export tenders are said to be picking up, maturity of the U.S. crop has progressed more rapidly than normal leading some commodity traders to believe that this development will decrease yield due to lighter test weights, albeit to a small degree. Basically, the
bottom line in terms of what's happening to price activity in the Chicago Futures Market currently may not leave much room for hope at all. As one trader analyst stated this morning, "market traders are simply attempting to rectify the potential crop size that was depicted in the August crop report to the decline depicted in weekly crop condition reports since August". August estimates typically add more uncertainty than assurance to trade in the commodity pits. History has proven that the September USDA crop size estimates are a far more reliable indicator of eventual crop output, and that is likely to be the case in 1999.

There is intense interest among traders and producers in this USDA September crop estimate. That report will be issued on September 10.


Corn Herbicide Carryover to Small Grains Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Soil moisture is needed to breakdown herbicides, either through a chemical process or support of soil microbes that in turn breakdown the herbicides. With the dry weather, herbicides applied to corn planted in dryland situations, are more likely to result in herbicide carryover. Atrazine and simazine (Princep) are two that are prone to carryover to small grains in dry years. As a rule, if you used 1.25 lbs. of atrazine or higher, your chances of carryover will increase. Remember that Marksman contains atrazine; 1 qt Marksman contains 0.5 lbs. atrazine. Atrazine plus simazine will also increase the likelihood. If you are concerned about carryover, avoid planting barley. Barley is more susceptible to herbicide carryover than wheat.



Suspected Pursuit-Resistant Pigweed Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

There is a report of a vegetable field in Delaware with Pursuit resistant pigweed in the field. If it is confirmed, it will be the first time Pursuit resistant pigweed has been found in Delaware. Fields in Maryland have confirmed cases of resistance. In cases involving Pursuit, it has been repeated Pursuit application to vegetables. Herbicide resistance is often not noticed until it is too late; it is not noticed until about 25% of all the plants of a given species that emerge are herbicide resistant. If you suspect resistance, contact your county agent and collect seed before the field is harvested to confirm resistance.


                  Weather Summary

Week of August 27 to August 31

Rainfall: None

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 86F on August 28 to 70 F on August 31.

Lows Ranged from 70F on August 27 to 63F on August 30.

Soil Temperature:

77 F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.