Volume 7, Issue 25                                                                                                                 September 17, 1999




Vegetable Insects -  Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;  jwhalen@udel.edu


Lima Beans.
Corn earworms continue to be found in late-planted lima beans. Since corn earworm moth pressure was still at higher than normal levels last week, economic levels could still be encountered for the next 2-3  weeks period.

Maintain a 5-7 day schedule for insect control through the end of September.

Snap Beans.
Continue to spray processing snap beans at the bud and pin stages with Orthene for corn borer control. At the pin spray, Asana or Capture will also be needed for corn earworm control. After the pin spray, fields should be sprayed on a 4- 5day schedule with Lannate or Capture until harvest. Fresh market snap beans should be sprayed on a 5-7 day schedule until harvest.

Sweet Corn.
Fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2 to 3-day schedule until the end of the season for earworms, corn borer and fall armyworm.

Vegetable Diseases    -  Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Patholgist ; bobmul@udel.edu


Lima beans.

The Delaware Department of Agriculture issued an Emergency Section 18 for the use of Quadris Flowable for Downy Mildew control on lima bean. There have been sporadic outbreaks of downy mildew caused by Phytophthora phaseoli during the past two growing seasons on susceptible cultivars of limas as well as cultivars with resistance to races A, B, C, and D of the downy mildew fungus. Research last season in the field and greenhouse showed Quadris effective in controlling downy mildew. Tri-basic copper sulfate is also labeled, but has not been effective. The only rate tested and the current labeled rate is 15.4 fl. oz. product per acre (0.25 lbs. ai/A). Quadris should be applied before symptoms appear. Apply at 7-10 day intervals; make no more than two sequential applications before switching to tri-basic copper sulfate if a third spray is needed. Quadris has been shown to be extremely phytotoxic to certain apple varieties, so it is important to avoid spray drift that may injure apples. Do not apply where drift may reach apple trees. Read the label for full details. A label must be in the possession of the user at the time of application. If you need a label, contact the county agents or me.        


The weather has been ideal for downy mildew and it has been identified in Maryland. Fields should be scouted regularly, especially after all the rain from Hurricane Floyd.




Several bean samples were received with water-soaked lesions on the pods and small angular spots on the leaves. Microscopic examination revealed that bacteria were present on both plant parts. Identification of the bacteria is in progress. If the problem is identified early, sprays of copper such as Kocide, Champ and others may help to reduce damage.

Field Crops


Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist ;  jwhalen@udel.edu



Corn earworm and green cloverworm are still present in fields throughout the state, especially in northern Kent and New Castle Counties. The threshold for corn earworms is 3 per 25 sweeps in narrow row soybeans. There is no sweep threshold for cloverworms; however, the defoliation threshold during pod-fill is 15%. This threshold increases to 30% defoliation once pod-fill is complete.   In most cases, fields sprayed for earworms in the last 2-3 weeks are still well below economic levels. Very few fields have needed to be resprayed. When they have, it has usually been the result of less than ideal conditions or extremely high pressure at the time of spraying NOT product failure. REMEMBER , if you are using a  pyrethroid, the primary mode of action on large larvae will be ingestion. They will need to feed to cause death so you will not see much activity from the contact action. Once they ingest product, they immediately stop feeding. Therefore, fields should not be evaluated for control until 4 days after application. Small larvae are generally killed by contact as well as ingestion.  It is important that you do not look at fields 1-2 days after spraying and assume control failure if large worms are present. This will result in unnecessary re-sprays. Corn earworm moth catches were still at higher than normal levels last week and egg laying was still observed. All fields should be watched through the end of the month for economic levels. In the past, diseases have helped to crash populations at this time of year. It has been our experience that you need to see at least a week of cool, rainy weather combined with warm, humid days to get fungal pathogens to develop and spread between larvae.


Small Grains.

As you make plans to plant wheat, be sure to use a combination of cultural practices for Hessian fly management. Populations were lower this spring as a result of the cool, dry conditions. However, as most have seen with this season's corn earworm explosions, populations of  Hessian fly could also increase quickly. Since there are no cost effective chemical controls for Hessian fly, a combination of the following cultural practices should be used:


·        Complete plowing of infested wheat stubble soon after harvest,

·        Crop rotation (do not plant wheat in the same field 2 years in a row)

·        Eliminate volunteer wheat before planting to prevent early egg laying,

·        Do not use wheat as a fall cover crop near fields with infestations in 1998

·        Plant after the fly free date (Oct 3 – New Castle County; Oct 8 – Kent County; Oct 10 – Sussex County)

·        Plant resistant varieties - This fall we are participating in a 3 state evaluation of varieties exhibiting resistance to various Hessian Fly biotypes. The variety Roane, which exhibited lower levels of lodging and good yield ratings in the University of Delaware's Small Grain Variety trial in 1998, will be included.




Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


How Does One LDP Early and Sell Late?
Over the course of the summer of 1999, most of us have heard this idea tossed around, “LDP early and sell late.”  If this happens to be a strategy that an individual were to decide to employ, then how is it done? The two options available for getting an LDP payment on corn or soybeans are either: 1). Field Direct LDP or  2). Stored LDP. With the first option, it is not possible to LDP early and sell late. The reason being that the grain is delivered (sold)
on the day it is harvested and the Loan Deficiency Payment (LDP) is assigned to the bushels sold at the rate being paid that day. Form CCC-709 must be submitted to the county FSA office prior to harvest. The bushels harvested are reported to the county FSA office at the time the LDP is made.

Option 2 does provide some room for employing the 'LDP early and sell late strategy'. First, it is imperative for a grain producer to maintain ownership title to the grain in question. Sometimes, a producer maintaining ownership of the stored grain is not possible in warehouse storage situations. Therefore, the question "who maintains title to the stored grain (the producer of the grain or the storage warehouse) must be known before entering a storage agreement with the warehouse?"  Another key point to bear in mind is that LDP's are made on stored grain "the day a producer signs form CCC-666 LDP and the form is submitted to the Farm Service Agency (FSA) office". So on the day that grain or soybeans are stored and one decides that the LDP rate is acceptable, the form can then be submitted in order to receive the LDP. The producer can then continue holding the grain or soybeans in hopes of receiving a higher price later. Therein, answers the question "How does one LDP early and sell late?"

The stored LDP option gives a producer added flexibility in getting LDP's assigned, and it is the only way to LDP early and sell late. Grain producers with busy harvest schedules can pick up blank forms, so that they in turn can complete them and fax the form into the county FSA office.  It is important to note yields for field direct LDP’s and bushels for stored LDP’s must be properly reported.

*This information was verified with the New Castle County FSA office.





Outside Hay Storage  - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu


When stored hay is stored outside, there are several important steps to take to ensure that minimal losses occur in both quality and quantity.  Whether your ultimate objective is to sell the hay or to use it to feed animals, these steps can save you money.


Step 1.  Keep in mind that in a typical 5 by 5 round bale, about 25 percent of the weight of the bale is concentrated in the outer 4 to 5 inch layer.  This outside layer can be nearly a total loss if you do not protect the bale in some way.


Step 2.  Wrap it up or cover it up.  Following the advice of Step 1, consider the use of some type of bale wrapping system to help protect your hay.  Another type of cover or an additional cover that is inexpensive and one of the fastest to apply is a 20-foot-wide roll of sheet plastic doubled over into a 10-foot wide sheet.  This is then pinned over the bales.  The double thickness makes the plastic durable enough to use several years.


Step 3.  Align round bales in rows with a minimum 3-feet between rows but butt the ends of the bales tightly together to prevent rain or condensation from penetrating.


Step 4.  Choose your round bale storage site carefully.  The best site may not be in the hay field or in a paddock nearest the cows.  A good site should have a gentle slope to shed water, should be well drained, and should receive direct sunlight.


Step 5.  Avoid setting bales directly on the ground.  Many researchers have found relatively high loss rates when bales are in contact with the soil.  Use old wooden pallets, fist-sized rocks, or four by four posts cut in five-foot lengths to make a base for your bales.

Upcoming  Meetings…


Delaware Solid Waste Authority has announced the new Schedule for household hazardous waste collection  (HHW).    




HHW includes such items as leftover or expired pesticides, aerosols, paints, stains, thinners, solvents, cleaners, prescription drugs, antifreeze, disinfectants and other substances.


Sussex County

October 2, 1999

SSWMC, Route 20, Jones Crossroads


New Castle County

November 6, 1999

Delaware Recycling Center, New Castle


December 4, 1999

Pine Tree Corners Transfer Station, Townsend


Kent County

A date in 2000 to be announced


“Household Hazardous Waste” includes small quantities from businesses such as Pest Control Operators, Farmers, Landscapers and Growers.  These businesses should call DSWA ahead of time to make sure their quantity meets restrictions.


 For more information on packaging HHW for delivery to collection sites, call DSWA at 1-800-404-7080.




16th Delmarva Forestry Seminar

Saturday, November 6, 1999

Delaware Technical & Community College

Georgetown, DE


Theme: “Forest Health”




8:00-8:30 a.m. – Registration

8:30-8:50 -       Welcome  &  Introductions

Keynote Speaker: Dr. Patricia Barber, University of Delaware, Associate Dean of Extension

8:55 – 9:40   General Session I – Forest Health and Riparian Buffers

9:40-9:55         Break

9:55-10:40       Concurrent Session #1

10:45 – 11:30    Concurrent Session #2

11: 35-12: 20   General Session II – Forest Wildlife Options

12:20               Lunch

1:20-1:35         Travel to Bill and Grace Lowe’s Tree Farm

1:35-4:00         Tour of Lowe’s Tree Farm, Georgetown, DE

4:15                 Return to Delaware Technical & Community College, Georgetown


Workshop Topics to be presented during the concurrent sessions


  1. General Forestry


  1. Silviculture Techniques


  1. GPS/GIS


  1. Taxes/Estate


Field Session: Topics include GIS/GPS, Pine/Tax Ditch, WSG Demonstration, Hardwood Girdling and Tree Shelters.   Wear Field Clothes and Shoes.


Registration Fee: $15.00 per person (Late Registration $20.00).  Registration includes lunch, breaks, printed materials, and transportation to field site. Please make checks payable to: DELMARVA  FORESTRY SEMINAR.


To register, contact the Delmarva Forestry Seminar, c/o University of Delaware, 69 Transportation Circle, Dover, DE  19901 (Telephone: 302-697-4000) by October 19, 1999.







Text Box: Weather Summary




Week of September 9 to September 16


0.10 inches: September 9

0.63 inches: September 10

0.75 inches: September 15

5.55 inches: September 16

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 86°F on September 9 to 73° F on September 15.

Lows Ranged from 68°F on September 15 to 52°F on September 12.

Soil Temperature:

74 °F average for the week.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:




Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops



Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.  Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.