Volume 7, Issue 4                                                                                                                April 23, 1999


Vegetables

Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Cole Crops.

Diamond back moths are now being caught in pheromone traps. Therefore, you should expect to see the first larvae in the next 7 – 10 days. A control is needed if 5% of the plants are infested with larvae. If the weather remains cool, Spintor will provide the best control. As temperatures increase, a Bt insecticide should be alternated with Spintor to avoid the development of resistance to either class of chemistry.

Potatoes.

Since the earliest planted potatoes have emerged from the ground, it is time to begin looking for Colorado Potato Beetle adults feeding on plants, especially where Admire was not used at planting. No insecticides will be needed until you find 25 beetles per 50 plants and defoliation has reached 10%. Provado at 3.75 oz per acre will provide good control. v


Lima Bean Resistance to Downy Mildew Race E - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, kee@udel.edu

Last fall, the Plant Pathology group at the University of Delaware confirmed a new race of downy mildew was present. This disease has been noticed sporadically in fields for the past three years. The new race was labeled race E. Screening work done in the greenhouse at Newark this winter by Dr. Tom Evans and Daryl Whittington revealed that certain varieties are resistant to Race E. The varieties 184-85 and C-elite selection from Ben Fish Seed Company apparently have resistance to Race E. Other seed companies have varieties that demonstrate resistance and those varieties will be identified in this newsletter as the results are confirmed.

Downy mildew can cause significant losses when the environmental conditions are favorable for the disease's development. Cool, damp weather in the fall often favors the disease.

 

Pea Herbicide Program Reminder - Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, kee@udel.edu

Each year we write about post-emergence weed control in peas. Remember, crop oil or surfactants should not be used with Basagran on Peas. The peas must have three sets of leaves before using. One quart is the maximum rate, and the smaller the weeds, the better the control will be. Lambsquarter control can only be achieved with Basagran when the weeds are very small.

Poast or Assure II are available for grass control. Assure II is probably more effective on volunteer small grains that may have survived the tillage process and are beginning to grow. v


Vegetable Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Patholgist ; bobmul@udel.edu

Cantaloupe and watermelon.

To prevent damping-off on cantaloupe and watermelon caused by Pythium apply Ridomil Gold 4E on a 7- inch band over the row. Be sure to control cucumber beetles on cantaloupe to prevent transmission of bacterial wilt. Control is necessary from emergence or transplanting until flowering.

Snapbeans.

If damping-off and root rot is a concern in early plantings, apply Ridomil Gold in a 7-inch band over the row at seeding, or apply Ridomil Gold PC-11G in the furrow at planting.

Potatoes.

Growers should note the date when each field emerges. Field emergence is defined as the time when a green row can be seen or 50% of the plants have emerged. This date will be used later for determining disease severity values (DSV’s). This year weather data collection will be done by Skybit and funded by the Potato Growers Association. Those who were not on the mailing list for the twice weekly Potato Fax should contact me by phone at 302-831-4865 or Fax at 302 831-0605 or email at bobmul@udel.edu to place your name on the list. Late blight is still raising its ugly head occasionally. There were several early reports of occurrences in Florida and in Texas. Nothing devastating, but it is still around and growers need to do what they can to protect their crop. v


Field Crops

Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa.

Alfalfa weevil larvae can be easily found feeding in the terminal growth of alfalfa plants throughout the state. Although the weather has slowed development, we can still see increases in leaf feeding. As a general threshold, no controls will be needed until 50% of the terminals are infested with larvae.

Field Corn.

Black cutworm moth activity remains high in the Delmar, Milford and Laurel areas. In addition, trap catches have increased in the following Maryland locations: Hurlock, Lewistown, Pocomoke, and Rhodesdale . Moth activity in combination with factors favoring outbreaks ( i.e., late planting, heavy broadleaf weed growth, and minimum tillage) provide an indication of where outbreaks are most likely to occur. As indicated in previous newsletters, moth catches ranging from 7 to 15 moths per 7-day period have been associated with a moderate to high potential for cutworm outbreaks. Once moth catches in an area reach this level, the first larvae are generally seen 300-degree days (using a temperature base of 50) after the peak. Although the degree model has not been worked out specifically for our region, it can be used as a general guideline for predicting larval activity in the field.

Grubs continue to be readily found in fields, especially fields with small grain/soybean stubble. Grubs generally feed on corn roots through mid-May. If you have started planting and economic levels of grubs are now present; they will be able to feed for at least one month. Damage from grubs usually appears as long skips in the row or in circular patches. If threshold levels of 1 – 2 grubs per square foot are being found, a soil insecticide placed in-furrow is needed.

 

Small Grains.

We are now seeing an increase in cereal leaf beetle adults and egg laying. No treatments will be needed until the economic threshold level of 25 eggs and/or larvae per 100 tillers (with 50% egg hatch) is reached. Although many eggs appear ready to hatch, we do not expect egg hatch until next week because of the cooler temperatures. Aphid populations should be watched once wheat heads have emerged. Parasites and predators are still keeping populations in check in most fields. A treatment will not be needed until you find 20 – 25 aphids per head. Aphids feeding on the grain heads can reduce yields as well as test weight. Once fields reach the early dough stage, it is no longer necessary to be concerned with aphids. v


Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist ; clgerman@udel.edu

Patience is the Key Approach to the Current Bear Market
Markets normally make bottoms on bearish news and the majority of traders in the world are bearish on grain prices. Many who were bullish in the grain markets back in the fall, before markets collapsed, are now negative. This becomes a classic scenario for a market in the process of making a bottom. Current price levels make grains and soybeans more affordable to world buyers, and this will help to make a dent in the surpluses. Another reason arguing for patience is the fact that prices continue to react positively to negative news. This indicates that the markets have discounted a majority of the bad news. Last but not least, planting conditions in much of the Midwest are currently wet, putting a hold on planting progress. That keeps planting delay fears alive. Rumor has it that another nuclear plant problem has developed in Russia. What, if any, impact this will have on the market is uncertain? The last time something like this happened beans were limit up for a day or two. This time, if the rumor is true, Russia's economic status may well lower the impact of the rumor.

Marketing Strategy
Patience can not be overemphasized! We are currently trading in the bottom 1/3 of the annual price range. The trend for all three grains is sideways. Since we are in spring planting time, with all the uncertainty of just how things will pan out, any kind of production problem over the next six weeks will result in prices going up presenting pricing opportunities. v


Uneven Emergence in Corn - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

With weather conditions changing back and forth between cold and wet and warm and sunny, you likely will see a lot of uneven emergence in your corn fields. Is there anything to worry about with delayed emergence? Yes, if the delay is very great the delayed plants can’t compete with older, more established plants and essentially become weeds or at the very least contribute little to yield. Dr. Nafziger and colleagues in an article in Crop Science report that a 10 day delay in emergence can result in about an 8 percent yield loss while a 21 day delay can reduce yields by 10 to 20 percent.

What factors can cause delayed emergence? Factors that can cause emergence problems include:

Some of these things can not be changed, such as your soil’s characteristics. Others such as how crop residues affect soil temperature or moisture can be changed by modifications to your planter. As with all of farming, one of the keys to success is to have a good maintenance program during the winter months as well as to do a lot of preplanning that will help you anticipate problems in the field before they occur.

When you begin planting, be aware of the soil temperature on the day of planting. Good corn germination and emergence will not occur if the soil temperature is below 50 F. Preferably, the temperature should be at least 50 F. and forecast to continue rising. Other considerations to keep in mind when planting include adjusting your planter as you switch hybrids or seed lots, using an appropriate seeding depth (and, checking to be sure the seed is planted as deep as you expected), adjusting the depth and tension of coulters in no-till, keeping all chains and bearings properly lubricated, adjusting the tension of the furrow closing wheels according to soil conditions (again, check this as conditions change during the day), and not exceeding the planting speed the planter’s manufacturer recommends.

Wheat Damage - Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

Believe it or not, snow geese are still damaging some wheat fields. I have seen several fields with snow geese feeding in them the last few days. For those of you with the problem, the wheat that is damaged at this time will produce little if any yield. The geese effectively are removing the heads; and, even if they were to stop feeding now, only small heads would be produced from just forming tillers. The best use of these fields will be as a green manure crop or as a very thin cover crop. Several farms in my area are plowing the wheat under to add organic matter to the soil and return some of the nitrogen to the organic nitrogen pool so it can be available to the next crop. v


FSA Guaranteed LoansLaurie Wolinski,

Extension Associate – Farm Management, lgw@udel.edu

The Farm Service Agency has announced that they are offering guaranteed loans to farmers at reasonably low interest rates, and perhaps lower interest rates than their suppliers may offer. FSA guaranteed loans are available for up to $700,000. Small operating loans of less than $50,000 require only 6 pieces of information. These loans may be used to finance typical operating items such as: livestock, farm equipment, annual operating expenses, family living expenses, as well as refinancing debts under certain conditions.

There are some general eligibility requirements for obtaining a guaranteed loan. One who is eligible has not caused FSA a loss by receiving debt forgiveness on more than three occasions, is not delinquent on any Federal debt (such as a student loan), and does not have any outstanding recorded judgements obtained by the U.S. in a Federal court. In addition, one who is eligible is a citizen of the U.S. or an alien lawfully admitted to the U.S for permanent residence, is over the age of 18, has an acceptable credit history, has been told by their lending institution to obtain a guarantee, has not been convicted of planting, cultivating, growing, producing, harvesting, or storing a controlled substance within the 5 crop years, and has not received direct or guaranteed operating loans for more than 15 years.

An applicant must apply for the loan from an eligible lender. In Delaware, some of the eligible lenders include: Mellon Bank, Wilmington Trust, Delaware Farm Credit, PNC Bank, and Felton Bank. The complete application for these FSA - $50,000 or less guaranteed operating loans consists of a few pages of information. Included in the necessary information is: the application form, a loan narrative and plan for servicing the loan, a balance sheet and cash flow budget, and a credit report.

Another consideration for applying for a FSA guaranteed operating loan is that the individual or entity who is applying must be an operator of a family farm, and must provide the majority of labor and management support on the family farm.

More information about these loans can be obtained by contacting your local county agricultural agent, or lending institution, or your local Farm Service Agency office. Other types of FSA guaranteed loans are available as well, for example, line of credit loans. Last year, of the $6 million that was available for guaranteed loans, only $2 million was used. v


Pesticide BriefsSusan Whitney, Extension Pesticide Educator; swhitney@udel.edu

Delaware Pesticide Applicator Training:

June 2 & 3, 1999

Delaware Department of Agriculture,

Dover, Delaware.

(302-739-4811 or 1-800-282-8685)


June 2: training 8:30 am -4:00pm
June 3: training 8:30 am - noon; exam starts at 1:00pm

Training manuals can be bought from the University of Delaware, Department of Entomology & Applied Ecology (302-831-2526), the Kent County Extension office (302-697-4000) or the Sussex County Extension Office (302-856-7303). Applicators need to buy their manuals at least 3 weeks before the exam. Manuals are shipped in bulk from Cornell to Delaware as we request them. Shipping takes at least 5 days

                                                    .        

Applicators also need to buy a Pesticide Applicator Training Workbook 3rd Edition, blue cover) from the University of Delaware. We will use the Workbook during training. Be sure to bring it! For more information, contact me at 302-831-8886 or e-mail me at swhitney@udel.edu. v


                   Weather Summary

Week of April 15 to April 21

Rainfall:
0.09 inches: April 15, 1999
0.01 inches: April 16, 1999
0.01 inches: April 20, 1999
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 66F on April 16 to 60 F on April 21.
Lows Ranged from 45F on April 16 to 33F on April 19.
Soil Temperature:
55 F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:

http://www.rec.udel.edu


Black Cutworm – Pheromone Trap Catches – 1999 Season

Data Provided by Terra Inc., Bridgeville, DE

Trapping Period: April 11 - 17, 1999

Location

#Moths/7Days

Location

# Moths/7Days

American Corner, MD

1

Lewistown, MD

13

Argos Corner, DE

2

Magnolia, DE

5

Atlanta, DE

3

Mardela Springs, MD

9

Bayard, DE

3

Marydel, MD

0

Berlin, MD

1

Milford, DE #1

16

Bethel, DE

0

Millsboro, DE

2

Bridgetown, MD

8

Milton, DE

1

Bucktown, MD

9

Newark, MD #1

3

Burrisville. MD

0

Newark, MD #2

1

Cambridge, MD

0

New Church, VA

7

Clarksville, MD

1

Oak Orchard, DE

1

Dagsboro, DE #1

2

Pocomoke, MD #1

13

Dagsboro, DE #2

0

Pocomoke, MD #2

0

Delmar, DE

13

Preston, MD

0

Denton, MD

1

Public Landing, MD

6

Easton, MD

0

Redden, DE

3

Eldorado, MD

5

Reeds Grove, MD

5

Ellendale, DE

2

Reliance, MD

4

Farmington, DE

0

Rhodesdale, MD

15

Federalsburg, MD

6

Ridgely, MD

1

Georgetown, DE

0

Seaford, DE #1

1

Goldsboro, MD

4

Seaford, DE #2

2

Greenwood, DE

1

Selbyville, DE #1

5

Hurlock, MD #1

13

Selbyville, DE #2

10

Hurlock, MD #2

8

Snow Hill, MD #1

1

Laurel, DE # 1

9

Snow Hill, MD #2

18

Laurel, DE # 2

4

Snow Hill, MD #3

8

Laurel, DE # 3

1

Trappe, MD

0

Leipsic, DE

6

Vernon, DE

1

Lewes, DE

4

Wyoming, DE

2


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops


Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.


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