Volume 7, Issue 1                                                                                       March 15, 1999


Vegetable Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Seed Corn Maggot.

Once again the warm winter conditions have favored early fly emergence and in many cases egg laying will occur before spring tillage. If spring conditions remain cool and wet, seed corn maggot will be a problem in many spring planted vegetables including cole crops, early melons, peas, snap beans, spinach and sweet corn. The most effective controls are achieved with a combination of early, complete tillage and a seed treatment (containing diazinon or chlorpyrifos) and/or a soil insecticide. All the soil insecticides labeled for sweet corn provide seed corn maggot control (Counter, Lorsban, Force, Fortress); however, a seed treatment is still needed when conditions are extremely favorable for maggot problems. Diazinon (AG 600) is labeled on many vegetable crops. It must be broadcast and incorporated in the top 3-4 inches of soil close to planting to be effective. If conditions are extremely favorable for maggot problems, a seed treatment must also be used in combination with this treatment. One treatment that has worked well with peas and is also labeled on corn and succulent beans is diazinon 50W as a planter box treatment. The use rate is oz per bushel of seed. It should also be combined with oz of graphite per bushel of seed to reduce friction between seeds. To reduce the chances of phytoxicity, seed must also be treated with a fungicide and you should only treat seed that will be used immediately. v


Vegetable Herbicide Updates for 1999

Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu

Accent, a post-emergence grass control herbicide, has received a label for processing sweet corn in Delaware, Maryland, and New Jersey. It may be applied with drop nozzles or broadcast on corn that is 12 inches tall or shorter. If the corn is between 12 and 18 inches, use drop nozzles only. Do not use drop nozzles if the corn is taller than 18 inches. Use at 0.66 ounces per acre. Always add crop oil or nonionic surfactant. Nitrogen fertilizers can also be added to enhance performance. Check the label for these details.

Accent is labeled only on these specific varieties: Bonus, Excalibur, GG-43, More (GG-55), Reward, Viking, and Zenith.

While the need for post-emergence grass control seldom occurs in sweet corn, Accent may be useful when significant escapes occur before cultivation. It may also be useful in a johnsongrass situation. Accent does have some activity on jimsonweed, burcucumber, morningglories, pigweed, and smartweed when the weeds are less than 3 to 4 inches tall.

Dual Magnum, a new formulation of Dual, has been labeled for transplanted cabbage and transplanted peppers. The rates are lower for Dual Magnum than the old rates for Dual 8E or Dual. For cabbage, use 0.50 to 1.33 pints/acre; for peppers, use 0.50 to 1.00 pints/acre. Use the lower rates on loamy sands and sandy loams. Check the label for other restrictions and application details.

Sprout-Nip has received a Crisis Exemption for use in dormant Spinach to control chickweed. The rate is 0.5 to 1.0 pints/acre. v


Greenhouse Cleanup for Transplant Production - Jay Windsor, Extension Agricultural Agent ; windsor@udel.edu

It's that time of year again; time to get the greenhouse ready for transplant production. Hopefully everyone cleaned out at the end of last season, but if you did not, the time to do so has arrived. A quick "to do" list would include:

The greenhouse should be sanitized with a 10% chlorox solution sprayed on all surfaces, benches, floors (stones, soil, weedmats), sidewalls. Any used trays you are re-using should be dipped.

If you have weedmat covering the floor, you should not have a weed problem. If weedmat is not used, then you may have to pull and rake. The only labeled herbicide safe to use in the greenhouse is Roundup. This should be used while the house is empty. Do not use pramitol or other volatile herbicides in the greenhouse, even if the greenhouse is empty. v



Winter Temperature Index For Predicting Stewart's Wilt in Delaware Sweet Corn-1993-1999

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist, bobmul@udel.edu

The index is the sum of the average temperature for Dec., Jan., and Feb. and predicts flea beetle overwintering.



Predicted Severity

< 90

Usually absent




Usually severe

Average Monthly Temperatures in 0F

1998-1999 1997-98     1996-97     1995-96     1994-95     1993-94


DEC                       41.0           38.4              40.9          32.1              41.8          35.4

JAN                               34.8           40.9              33.2          30.9              37.6          25.6

FEB                               38.0           40.6        40.3      34.7           31.7  31.3


INDEX                      113.8            119.9             114.2      97.7         111.1 92.3


Georgetown REC

DEC                       41.3           39.3     42.0     33.5         43.0 36.5

JAN                               39.5           42.6     35.0     33.5         39.0 29.5

FEB                                38.7            40.6      41.5    34.7          33.8 36.0


INDEX                      119.5        122.5            118.5    102.5        115.8        102.0


1999 Prediction:

Newark: Severe

Georgetown: Severe v


Managing Stewart's Wilt In Sweet Corn - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist, bobmul@udel.edu

Two phases of Stewart’s bacterial wilt, caused by Erwinia stewartii, occur on corn. The seedling blight phase can substantially reduce yield of sweet corn hybrids that are susceptible or moderately susceptible to Stewart’s wilt. The leaf blight phase, which occurs after pollination, has little effect on sweet corn yield. The importance of Stewart’s wilt in sweet corn depends on the amount of inocula of E. stewartii, the resistance or susceptibility of the hybrid being grown, and the growth stage at which plants are infected.

Stewart’s wilt inoculum. Corn flea beetles are the overwintering host and vector of E. stewartii. Winter survival of flea beetles can be forecast from average daily temperatures in December, January, and February. Flea beetles do not survive well when the average temperature is below 27F. If the average temperature is above 33F, flea beetles vectoring E. stewartii may be present at early plantings in the spring. The occurrence of Stewart’s wilt on early-planted corn usually corresponds with the ability of flea beetles to overwinter. The following table shows that overwintering is very likely in Delaware and the prediction is for a severe Stewart’s wilt season. The occurrence of Stewart’s wilt on subsequent plantings depends on the abundance of flea beetles later in the season. Flea beetle populations tend to increase in dry conditions and decrease with heavy rainfall. Transmission of E. stewartii in sweet corn hybrid seed is highly improbable because the bacterium does not occur in Idaho where most seed is produced and rates of seed transmission are extremely low even if seed parent inbreds are highly susceptible.

Resistance and susceptibility. Stewart’s wilt resistance restricts the movement of E. stewartii in vascular tissues of plants. The bacterium moves systemically throughout the vascular system of susceptible plants. Infection is constrained within a few inches of flea beetle feeding wounds in resistant plants. An entire range of reactions from resistant to highly susceptible occurs among the 500-600 sweet corn hybrids that are sold commercially. Reactions of hybrids can be classified as resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moderately susceptible (MS), and susceptible (S) based on results from multiple trials. These reactions are "relative" because classifications are based on the response of a hybrid in comparison to all other hybrids.

Yield reductions due to Stewart’s wilt. The severity of Stewart’s wilt infection and the effect of this disease on yield are influenced by levels of host resistance and the growth stage at which plants are infected (Table 1). Yield is rarely affected when resistant or moderately resistant hybrids are infected after the 3- to 5-leaf or 5- to 7-leaf stages, respectively. When plants are infected prior to the 3-leaf stage, main stalks may be killed causing tillers to grow profusely. Main stalk death occurs even in the most resistant hybrids, but the percentage of plants affected is lower for hybrids with greater levels of resistance.

Controlling Stewart’s Wilt. Host resistance and preventing plants from becoming infected are the only effective strategies for control of Stewart’s wilt because infection is systemic in plants that do not have moderate to resistant reactions. Curative treatments are not available.

In-furrow or post-plant applications of insecticides have had varied success at decreasing flea beetle populations well enough to control Stewart’s wilt. Seed treatment insecticides that are being tested currently may be very useful even on resistant hybrids if infection at early growth stages can be controlled and the incidence of main stalk death reduced.

Sweet corn hybrids with moderate to susceptible reactions to Stewart’s wilt should not be grown when flea beetles are abundant and Stewart’s wilt is likely to occur. Moderately resistant and resistant hybrids may be damaged to some extent when flea beetles are plentiful and infection occurs at early growth stages, but this damage will be substantially less than what would occur on hybrids that are more susceptible.

Adapted from an article written by Gerald Patty, University of Illinois.v

Field Crops

By Don Hershman "Submitted by: Bob Mulrooney"

Over the past month, we have received numerous samples and complaints about wheat being off-color in entire fields or large portions of fields. Typical symptoms are brown lower leaves and yellowed upper leaves, which often have purplish tips. Symptoms are often worse in lower areas of fields. Emerging growth often looks normal, however.

We have tested a number of samples for various wheat viruses, and I am confident that we are not dealing with a large scale virus epidemic. We have detected some wheat spindle streak mosaic, but all samples, thus far, have come back negative for barley yellow dwarf and soil-borne wheat mosaic. In addition, we see no evidence that herbicides used in previous crops are involved.

Dr. Lloyd Murdock, Extension Soils Specialist, and I visited a field in Graves County last week that was showing the symptoms described above. In that case Dr. Murdock determined that the problem was the result of poor root development and, thus, limited nutrient uptake and crop stress due to fields having excess soil moisture. Dr. Murdock has visited other fields this year with the same symptoms and came to the same conclusion. A common denominator in all the fields, thus far, has been the presence of a hard-pan which contributes significantly to a soil being "wet natured". This explains the yellowing and purpling of wheat across entire fields. The browning of lower leaves is simply the result of freeze damage which occurred in January, and nitrogen deficiency. The normal green new growth is an indication that the crop will recover as soon as soil temperatures warm and nitrogen applied is taken up by plants. Significant improvement in many of the fields that were a concern just a few weeks ago suggests that this prognosis is accurate for most situations.v


Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist ; jwhalen@udel.edu


Although late winter conditions have been relatively warm, the recent cool weather will result in a delay in alfalfa weevil activity. Begin to check your fields by early April in Sussex County and by mid-April in Kent and New Castle Counties for alfalfa weevil activity. You should begin by checking 5 areas for the presence of tip feeding. If no feeding is observed, a full sample is not needed and the field should be rechecked within one week. Once feeding damage is noted, collect 30 stems at random throughout a field and determine the number of larvae per stem. As a general rule, a treatment should be applied if 50% or more of the stems exhibit tip feeding. In alfalfa less than 12-inches tall, a treatment should be applied if you find 20 larvae per 30 stems. Insecticides labeled for alfalfa weevil include Ambush, Baythroid, Furadan, Imidan, Lannate, Lorsban, Pounce and Warrior.

Field Corn.

Soil Insects and Soil Insecticide Placement:

Since there are no rescue treatments for many soil insect pest in field corn, a review of the factors that favor soil insect problems in combination with knowledge of a pest problem in a particular field can help in making a treatment decision.

  1. Rootworms: In continuous corn situations, the decision to treat for rootworms can be based on a number of factors. If fields were scouted the previous season and adult beetle counts are available, you can use this information to make a treatment decision. In Delaware, adult beetle counts in 1998 were at a moderate level. If scouting data is not available, the following factors are known to favor rootworm problems and can be used to decide if an at-planting soil insecticide is needed: Continuous corn planted on heavier soil types, especially if you are in your second to fifth year of continuous corn; or rotated corn planted on heavier soils following soybeans in 1997 where heavy populations of rootworm beetles were observed, and/or there were heavy infestations of volunteer corn or weeds. Counter, Force, Fortress, Lorsban, or Regent all provide rootworm control. If Regent is used, fields cannot be planted to leafy vegetables for one month, root crops for five months, or small grains and other rotational crops for 12 months following application. Adequate control can be achieved when soil insecticides are placed either in-furrow or T-banded. The use of Furadan 4F at side-dressing has worked in some areas, especially where no soil insecticide was used at planting and economic levels were encountered. Effective control with this strategy will only be obtained where applications are precisely timed, weather conditions are favorable (i.e., adequate moisture), and fields are scouted accurately for larvae.
  2. Wireworms: High organic matter content, sod covers, and heavy grass pressure the previous season favor wireworm populations. In addition, continuous corn fields with one or more of the above conditions are very susceptible to wireworm problems. Since wireworm larvae spend multiple years in the larvae stage and their movement in the soil is easily affected by moisture gradients, good control is often difficult to achieve. Counter, Force and Regent have provided wireworm control; however, the materials should be used at the higher end of the labeled rates and placed in-furrow to achieve economical control.
  3. White Grubs: Populations are favored by a number of factors including planting into double crop or season soybean stubble as well as planting into old sod, hay, pasture or set-aside acreage. Larvae are also affected by moisture gradients in fields and are most commonly found on sandy knolls. If conditions remain cool and wet after corn is planted, damage can be very severe since plants are unable to grow ahead of the damage. Under these conditions, larvae stay in the larval stage longer resulting in an extended feeding period. Soil insecticides must also be placed in-furrow to achieve effective control.
  4. Seed Corn Maggot: Cool, wet conditions during planting and plant emergence favor seed corn maggot problems. Flies have already been observed laying eggs. Additional factors favoring this pest include use of manures, late plowing of cover crops, poorly drained soils and freshly plowed ground. A seed treatment containing diazinon should be used on all early-planted fields as well as fields falling into one or more of the above categories. If a number of the above factors are present and cool, wet conditions persist through the planting season, a seed treatment plus a soil insecticide is often necessary.
  5. Black Cutworm: This insect pest is favored by late planting, broadleaf weed growth before planting into soybean stubble, poorly drained fields and reduced tillage. This is the one soil insect pest where a rescue treatment can be applied if you are able to scout fields at least twice a week once leaf feeding is detected. However, if field conditions become extremely dry after planting and cutworms feed below the soil surface, it will be extremely difficult to obtain adequate control with a rescue treatment. If you are unable to scout and you plan to plant into a field with a history of cutworms and/or a number of the conditions favoring cutworms are present, a treatment may be needed at planting. One option is the combination of a pyrethroid (Ambush, Asana, Pounce or Warrior) with your pre-emergence herbicide if you are using an at-planting soil insecticide, Force, Lorsban, and Fortess are labeled for cutworm control, but they must be applied as a T-band to be effective .

Small Grains.

Although there have been reports of increases in insect activity in small grains in North Carolina, the recent cold weather has resulted in low populations so far in our area. Aphid populations were relatively low last fall, except in some early-planted barley. If conditions remain cool and beneficial insect activity is reduced, increases in aphid populations could be seen. Begin scouting fields in late March and early April for aphids and cereal leaf beetle. Research from Virginia and North Carolina as well as experience in our area continues to emphasize the importance of the stem leaves and flag leaf in achieving optimum yields. Therefore, an earlier triggered cereal leaf beetle threshold that allows growers more lead time in making a treatment decision as well as one that coincides with fungicide applications to share application costs is now recommended. In high management fields with good yield potential and/or where the potential for cereal leaf beetle problems is high, the threshold of 25 or more eggs and/or small larvae per 100 tillers should be used. If you are using this threshold, it is critical that you wait until at least 50 – 60% are in the larval stage (i.e. after 50% egg hatch). If the egg/larvae threshold is not used, the threshold of 0.5 larvae per stem and 10 % defoliation can provide enough lead-time to provide good control if fields are scouted on a routine basis. A number of products are labeled for cereal leaf beetle control. Sevin will provide good control although experience in 1996 demonstrated that it could result in aphid explosions by reducing predator populations. Furadan provides good control; however, it can not be applied once grain is heading. Lannate and Warrior provide good control of the entire insect complex present in small grains (cereal leaf beetles, aphids, armyworm and grass sawfly). If you are using the egg threshold, Warrior may be the best option due to its longer residual nature. Warrior is still only labeled on wheat. v


New Corn Products for 1999 -

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist ; mjv@udel.edu

Aim: From FMC for postemergence.

It is a PPO inhibitor (similar to Blazer/Reflex), thus it has only contact activity, it does not translocate. Use rate is 1/3 oz/A + NIS. It has a narrow spectrum of weeds including nightshade, pigweed, lambsquarters, and velvetleaf. It will need to be tank-mixed with atrazine or Banvel to broaden spectrum of control. It has a 30 day rotation restriction.

Axiom: From Bayer as a preemergence herbicide.

It is a pre-mix of Flufenacet + Sencor. Flufenacet is a residual grass herbicide similar to Dual and Lasso. The use rate is 13 to 23 oz/A. Crop rotation is 4 to 12 months. Control spectrum is primarily grass herbicide, some control of small seeded annuals. Will need atrazine to broaden spectrum of control.

Distinct: From BASF for postemergence.

It contains a new growth regulator type herbicide (diflufenzopyr) plus dicamba (Clarity). Use rate is 6 oz/A for corn 4 to 10" and 4 oz/A for corn 10 to 24". This product is labeled for use with NIS plus N. At the 6 oz/A rate, the equivalent rate of Clarity is 6 oz product per acre. At 4 oz/A rate, the equivalent rate of Clarity of 4 oz product per acre. Spectrum of control is very similar to Banvel or Clarity, but Canada thistle control is very good. Rotation is 4 months.

Bicep Magnum TR: From Novartis for preemergence use in corn. It is Dual II Magnum plus Atrazine plus Python. The atrazine rate is the same for Bicep Lite, not Bicep. Use rate is 1.6 to 2.2 qts/A, and at 1.6 qts/A the equivalent rates are 1 pt Dual II Magnum plus 0.8 qt atrazine plus 0.43 oz Python. Planting restrictions for this product are the same for Python and Broadstrike plus Dual. Python is the same active ingredient as Broadstrike. Refer to label for restrictions.

Pinnacle has been labeled for use in corn. Rate is 0.25 oz/A for corn in the 2 to 6 leaf stage or not more than 8 inches tall, whichever is more restrictive. When using with Counter, observe precautions for ALS-inhibiting herbicides.

Clarity: From BASF has be labeled for use over corn through 36 inch tall without having to apply with drop nozzles. Clarity is diglycolamine salt of dicamba, a less volatile form of Banvel.

Novartis products: Dual II Magnum and Bicep II Magnum are available this year. The use rate of these products is less than Dual II or Bicep II, so be sure to check the container and know which formulation you are using. Adjust the rates accordingly.


Product Company Materials
NorthStar Novartis Banvel + Beacon
Field Master Monsanto Roundup + Harness + atrazine
LeadOff DuPont Same product as Guardsman
Celebrity BASF Accent + Banvel
Liberty ATZ AgrEvo Liberty + atrazine

*Note on Bladex.

Maximum use rate in 1999 is 3 lb ai/A, instead of the original plan or reducing use rate to 1 lb/A. However, total phase out is planned for 2002. v


Field Crop Diseases - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist ; bobmul@udel.edu


It is still not too late to check for the soybean cyst nematode. Soil samples can be checked for the presence of SCN at any time of the year as long as the ground is not frozen or flooded. If you are planting susceptible soybeans in an area where SCN is present, I would not plant them without a nematode test. Nematode Assay bags are available from each of the county Extension offices. The Delaware Soybean Board pays for half the cost with check-off funds until April 2. Growers in Delaware pay $5.00 per sample, after April 2 the cost will be $10/sample. If a soybean grower with a 40 acre field with a yield potential of 40 bushels per acre, plants a susceptible variety on SCN infested ground, he can lose 30-50% of the yield to SCN. If you figure a 30% loss which is 12 bu/A over the 40 acres that is 480 bushels lost at $5.00/bushel. This results in a loss of $2,400 as a result of not taking a $5.00 or $10 Nematode Assay Test. Can you afford not to test? PP-2 Management of Soybean Cyst Nematode is available from the county Extension offices. This fact sheet outlines the SCN situation in Delaware, and makes management suggestions for growers. If you do not have a copy yet, please stop by a county office or request one. Newly revised fact sheet, PP-13 Soybean Variety Reactions to Soybean Cyst and Root Knot Nematodes is also available on the world wide web or at the county Extension offices. v


Is Goose Feeding Damage on Wheat Reducing Yields?

Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

Many growers are wondering if the goose-feeding damage they are seeing on their wheat will reduce yield potential. There are two types of damage. The first type is where the geese pull the plants out of the soil and cause stand thinning. The second is leaf clipping in which the geese break-off leaves and may graze the plants to within a inch or two of the soil surface.

For the first type of damage, the answer to the question depends on the extent and uniformity of the stand thinning. For uniform thinning and stands that do not fall below 15 to 18 plants per square foot, little to no yield reduction will occur. However, be sure to apply at least one-half of your total nitrogen early or by green-up in the spring. The remainder should be applied between Feeke’s growth stage 4 and 5. Uniform stands between 10 to 15 plants per square foot generally average about a 10 percent yield reduction (a four-year average in University trials). For non-uniform stands and stands below 10 plants per square foot, yield reductions are less predictable and depend on growing conditions and the extent of stand loss.

For the second type of damage, goose leaf clipping differs little from cattle grazing wheat. In the southeast and Gulf Coast states (yields typically average between 40 to 60 bu/A), grazing wheat is a common practice. Grazing, even intensive grazing can occur up to Feeke’s growth stage 5 without significant yield reduction. However, once the growing point is above the soil surface (growth stage 6 or jointing), grazing by geese just like cattle can significantly reduce yield. For growers raising intensively managed, high yield potential wheat, keep in mind that little is known about grazing impacts on this type of wheat and there may be some lowering of yield potential. This growth stage occurs in late March or early April.

What can be done for wheat that has been heavily grazed? The best approach is to apply early nitrogen to stimulate vegetative growth and ensure that tillering is complete well before jointing. Also, inspect the wheat for other potential problems such as manganese deficiency and treat accordingly.


Evaluating Alfalfa Stands

Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist ; rtaylor@udel.edu

Alfalfa growers often must deal with the difficult decision of when to replant a field. Since alfalfa is a very expensive crop to establish, growers frequently agonize over how best to evaluate their stand.

There are two methods used to determine if a stand is worth keeping. The first method is by counting the number of plants per square foot. Current information suggests that when stand counts of alfalfa plants fall below 4 to 5 plants per square foot, it’s time to either rotate out of pure alfalfa or interseed a grass crop such as orchardgrass, tetraploid ryegrass, or annual ryegrass.

Rotatation to another crop can sometimes be postponed for a year or two by interseeding a high-quality, productive grass when the alfalfa stand has become weak. Interseeding grasses helps maintain hay yields and excellent hay quality.

The second method derives from research out of Wisconsin by Dr. Dennis Cosgrove that indicates that stem number rather than plant number is a more accurate determination of when to plow down or interseed an alfalfa stand. Cosgrove suggests using a value of 55 or more stems per square foot for production of maximum yields. A reduction in stem number per square foot to 40 stems or less will result in a 25 percent yield reduction. This level is the critical point when alfalfa fields begin to lose profitability and should be rotated to another crop for one or, preferably, two years.

How should you make the stand (plant or stem) counts? The number of stem or stand counts you make depends on the size of the field and the uniformity of stand reduction. In general, the larger or less uniform a field, the greater the number of counts needed. For uniform fields, 20 to 30 acres in size, count about 20 randomly chosen square foot areas and average the results. Take more counts on non-uniform fields and larger fields.

When should you make the counts? If you must decide on whether to reseed early in the spring (you will not take a first harvest of alfalfa before planting another crop) or after a very hard winter with significant heaving or winter injury damage, base your decision to reseed on the number of plants per square foot. If a decision to reseed can be made during the growing season or later in the spring, use the stems per square foot threshold. v

1999 Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops and the 1999 Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide Available at Local Extension Offices

You may obtain copies of the Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops and the Commercial Vegetable Recommendation Guide from your local county Extension office or by mail from the Research & Education Center in Georgetown. The cost of the Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops is $9.00. The cost for the Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide is $7.00. Please use the enclosed form and make checks payable to "University of Delaware" and allow one week for the delivery of the books. v

Weekly Crop Update Begins Weekly on April 9, 1999 - Tracy Wootten, Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops wootten@udel.edu

The Weekly Crop Update will begin its weekly issues on April 9, 1999. This newsletter is designed to provide subscribers with the latest information on disease and insect problems as they are developing, weed control information, crop progress reports, and other timely topics related to agronomic and vegetable crop production in Delaware. This current issue is the only issue for the month of March. The weekly issues will begin in April and continue through September. The Weekly Crop Update can be obtained by mail, by fax or from the internet. If you would like to receive Update by mail or by fax, the cost of the subscription will remain at $30 (same as last year). Use the enclosed form to subscribe. If you can access the internet, there is no charge for the newsletter. Weekly Crop Update is mailed each Friday. The newsletter is placed on the internet by 4:30 p.m. on Fridays. If you choose to receive the newsletter by fax, it will be sent to subscribers on Friday evening. I would like to ask those of you who plan to access the newsletter from the internet to let me know of any problems that you may experience throughout the season. Please forward any comments or concerns to me at 302-856-7303 or at wootten@udel.edu v


Introduction to the Internet for Farm Families

Learn how to get connected and find agricultural-related information on the World Wide Web

Date: March 24

Time: 7:00 - 9:00 p.m.

Location: University of Delaware Kent County Extension Office, Dover, DE

Contact: Gordon Johnson, 302-697-4000.


March Pesticide Applicator Training Session & Exam

March 16-17, U of D Research & Education Center, Georgetown, DE 302-856-7303

March 22-23, New Castle County Extension Office, Newark, DE 302-831-2506

March 30-31, Delaware Department of Agriculture, Dover, DE 1-800-282-8685.

Day 1: training 8:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m.

Day 2: training 8:30 a.m.-Noon

Day 2: Exam starts at 1:00 p.m.




"Equipment Maintenance and Preparation of Cooling Systems"

Sponsored by the University of Delaware and the University of Maryland Cooperative Extension

This seminar series will provide information on:

The educational seminar will be held at following locations from 7:00 PM to 9:00 PM. Refreshments and pastries will be provided.

These meetings are free and open to the public, please call the contact for the location you wish to attend for more details.

Date: March 22

Location: Milford Ruritan Hall, Milford, DE

Contact: Gordon Johnson, 302-697-4000

Date: March 23

Location: University of Delaware Research & Education Center, Georgetown, DE

Contact: Jeanie Johnson, 302-856-7303

Date: March 24

Location: Powellville Fire Hall, Powellville, MD

Contact: Linda Williams, 410-651-9111

Date: March 25

Location: Somerset County Library, Princess Anne, MD

Contact: Linda Williams, 410-651-9111



"Financial Management and Obtaining Loans"

The Cooperative Extension Services from the Universities of Delaware and Maryland cordially invite all poultry growers to attend the following educational seminar.

This seminar series will provide information on:

The educational seminar will be held at each of the following locations from 7:00 PM to 9:00 PM. Refreshments and pastries will be provided.

Date: March 29

Location: Messick Community Building, Harrington, DE

Contact: Gordon Johnson, 302-697-4000

Date: March 30

Location: Gumboro Community Center (Old School), Gumboro, DE

Contact: Jeanie Johnson, 302-856-7303

Date: March 31

Location: Delmar VFW, Delmar, MD

Contact: Linda Williams, 410-651-9111

Date: April 1

Location: Snow Hill Library, Snow Hill, MD

Contact: Turp Garrett, 410-632-1972


Weather Summary

Week of March 5 to March 12

0.07 inches: March 6
0.25 inches: March 10
Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.
Air Temperature:
Highs Ranged from 50 F on March 5 to 45 F on March 7.
Lows Ranged from 35 F on March 5 to 18 F on March 8.
Soil Temperature:
42F average for the week.
(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth)

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:


Compiled & Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Extension Associate - Vegetable Crops

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State College and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating, John C. Nye, Dean and Director. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age or national origin.

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I would like to subscribe to the WEEKLY CROP UPDATE NEWSLETTER for 1999

Please send $30 and this form to:

Tracy Wootten

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

16483 County Seat Highway,

Georgetown, Delaware 19947

Please make checks payable to "University of Delaware"


Do you want to receive the "Weekly Crop Update" via FAX o YES o NO _______________________________________________________________________________________

Please send me __ copy (ies) of the 1999 Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide. They are $7.00/book.


Please make checks payable to "University of Delaware" .

Please send check and this form to:

Tracy Wootten

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

16483 County Seat Highway,

Georgetown, Delaware 19947


Please send me __ copy (ies) of the 1999 Pest Management Recommendations For Field Crops.

They are $9.00/book.


Please make checks payable to "University of Delaware" .

Please send check and this form to:

Tracy Wootten

University of Delaware Research & Education Center

16483 County Seat Highway,

Georgetown, Delaware 19947