Volume 12, Issue 7                                                                     May 7, 2004




Sinbar and Reflex Receive Section 18 Emergency Labels Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu


Reminder, Sinbar has been approved by the EPA for a Section 18 Emergency Label for pre-emergence use on watermelons.  Sinbar has been approved annually for several years, and has provided excellent broadleaf weed control.


Reflex has been approved for a Section 18 label for post-emergence use on snap beans.  Reflex has also been approved annually for several years, and has also provided excellent broadleaf control in snap beans.  It has become a standard, with Dual used preemergence, followed by Reflex applications approximately 18-21 days after planting to control broadleaf weeds.


Always read the label completely for application directions.



Pickle Planting Will Begin Soon - Population Rates and Herbicide Programs Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist; kee@udel.edu


Growers of pickling cucumbers will begin planting in May.  Some will begin as early as the first full week of May.   Population studies have indicated that 55,000 plants per acre is the most advantageous population.  In 30 inch rows, this is a plant every 31/2 to 4 inches apart.  Pickling cucumber seed is now over $1.55 per thousand.  There may be real merit in reducing the population to 50,000 plants per acre.  Reducing the seed used by 5,000 per acre is a saving of $7.75 per acre, over 500 acres this saves $3,875.  While it is not known for sure if yield would be consistently affected by this reduction, it may be worth the trouble for growers to run several tests on their farms.


Herbicide options have improved over the years.  The commercial standard seems to have evolved to a tank-mix of Curbit 3E at 1.5 pint/acre plus Command 3ME at 3-4 ounces per acre.  The Curbit 3E rate can be raised to 2 pints/acre as temperatures rise through the planting season.  Typically by the time of June plantings, the rate can be raised to 2 pints per acre.  Keeping the lower rate during the cooler period of early planting will help avoid any stunting or “growth checking.”  Raising the rate later will provide a little extra control.


These materials are now sold as a jug-mix product labeled as Strategy.  1.5 pints of strategy is roughly equal to 1 pint of Curbit 3E and 4 ounces of Command 3ME.  2 pints of Strategy is equal to 1.2 pints of Curbit 3E and 6 ounces of Command 3 ME.  While the 2 pint rate of Strategy is a little light on the Curbit portion of the mix, it’s still acceptable for good weed control in most situations.


The other material is Sandea, which has been labeled for two seasons.  It may be used premergence at 0.5 to 1 ounces to control cocklebur, redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, ragweed and galinsoga. 


Perhaps the best use of Sandea is as a post-emergence material. It can be applied at 0.5 to 0.66 ounces per acre to suppress or control yellow nutsedge in addition to the weeds listed above.  It’s control of breakthrough redroot pigweed is especially important to mechanical harvest operations, especially with the pinch-roller type of harvester.


Always read the label for complete details on use and application.






Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu



As soon as plants are set in the field, you should begin scouting for cucumber beetles, aphids and spider mites. Foliar products can provide good cucumber beetle control; however, multiple applications of a pyrethroid or Sevin may lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season, so be sure to scout fields and only treat if populations are causing damage. In 2003, dimethoate provided very good cucumber beetle control.  As indicated in a previous newsletter, Furadan, Admire and Platinum can all be applied as at-planting materials. Admire, Platinum and Vydate can be applied through the drip irrigation and all provided good cucumber beetle and aphid control in 2003 trials. As a reminder, the rates for all products applied through the drip are expressed as a broadcast rate/acre; however, you should check the labels and calculate the rate per 1000 foot of row based on your bed spacing (e.g for Vydate at 2 qts/acre: for a 6 foot bed spacing the rate is 8.8 oz/1000 ft of row; at the same rate/acre for a 7 foot bed spacing the rate is 10.28 oz/1000 ft of row.)

There have been reports of low levels of aphids on plants in the greenhouse as well as plants recently set in fields. If plants are ready to set out, the best option is to check plants for aphids as soon as they are set in the field. Be sure to watch for beneficial insects as well. In recent years, they have helped to crash populations.  The treatment threshold for aphids is 20 percent infested plants with at least 5 aphids per leaf. Actara, Fulfill, Lannate and Thionex are labeled on melons and will provide melon aphid control. These materials should be applied before aphids explode. 

As the earliest peas bloom and set pin pods, be sure to sample for aphids. Although levels have been generally low, we are starting to see an increase in populations.  Warmer weather could result in a rapid increase in populations. On small plants, you should sample for aphids by counting the number of aphids on 10 plants in 10 locations throughout a field. On larger plants, take 10 sweeps in 10 locations. A treatment is recommended if you find 5-10 aphids per plant or 50 or more aphids per sweep. Dimethoate or Lannate will provide aphid control. Be sure to check the labels for application restrictions during bloom.

The first Colorado potato beetle adults and egg masses have been found in the earliest emerged fields. Actara, cryolite, Spintor or Provado will provide control. To avoid the development of resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides, fields treated with Admire, Platinum or Tops MZ Gaucho at planting should not receive foliar treatments of Provado or Actara. Corn borer moth catches are below one-per-night in most areas except in the Bridgeville area were catches increased to 4-per-night. We can expect to see an increase in moth populations as soon as temperatures increase after the recent period of cool, rainy weather.

Sweet Corn.
In fields where plastic was used as a row cover, b
e sure to begin sampling for European corn borer larvae as soon as the plastic is removed.   A treatment should be applied if 15 percent of the plants are infested. The best timing for a treatment is just as the tassels are emerging from the whorls. In recent years, Avaunt (labeled for whorl stage only), Baythroid, Mustang MAX, Penncap, Spintor or Warrior have provided effective control. Intrepid was labeled last year and provided good corn borer control in whorl stage corn.  You should also continue to watch for black cutworm and flea beetle activity. Damage from both insect pests has been observed in early-planted sweet corn.





Vegetable Diseases Kate Everts, Extension Plant Pathologist University of Maryland and Delaware, everts@udel.edu


Growers frequently ask “What chemicals can I use in the greenhouse on my transplants?”  The following article, written last winter by Dan Egel and Fred Whitford for a Purdue University Extension newsletter in Indiana, answers that question.


PESTICIDES IN THE VEGETABLE GREENHOUSE:  LAWS, LABELS, AND LESIONS- (Dan Egel and Fred Whitford) – Forget the cold snow outside.  Imagine it’s April.  You walk into your transplant greenhouse only to discover that you have a pest problem.  Perhaps you find spider mites on tomatoes.  Or perhaps you notice gummy stem blight on watermelons.  Later, in your pesticide storage shed, you reach for the same pesticide that was affective against the pest last year in the field.  Suddenly, you find yourself wondering, is it OK to apply this pesticide in a greenhouse?        


It’s a good question since insects and diseases tend to flourish inside the hot, humid environments that greenhouses provide.  The answer to this question is, to coin a well-known extension phrase, it all depends!  It depends on what the label says or doesn’t say as to how the question can be answered.  (Of course, telling growers to read the label first is nothing new.)  In general (another well-worn Extension phrase) the answer is 1) yes, 2) no; it’s illegal, or 3) we can’t recommend it, but you can use at your own risk.  Let’s look at our answers based on different scenarios.


Scenario 1.  Our yes answer is supported by language found on the Kocide 2000 label.  Kocide 2000 is a fixed copper compound that vegetable growers might use to combat bacterial diseases such as tomato bacterial spot and bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.  The twelve-page label, with instructions for use in the field and in the greenhouse, clearly states “Kocide 2000 may be used in greenhouses and shadehouses to control diseases on any crop on this label where physiology allows greenhouse or shadehouse culture.  Specific directions are presented for Citrus, Cucumber, Eggplant, Pepper, and Tomato.”  This is found on page 3 of the label.  You can then turn to page 9 and find the heading Greenhouse and Shadehouse Crops, and find specific instructions on disease control for citrus, cucumber, eggplant, pepper and tomatoes.  Again, the answer to the question, can this pesticide be used in the greenhouse is yes.


Scenario 2. The label language found in Bravo WeatherStik will be used to clarify the no answer.  Under the section of the label titles “General Precaution and Restrictions” the label says, “Do not use on greenhouse-grown crops.”  In this case, the manufacture is quite clear that they do not want this specific brand name product to be used in the greenhouse.  Case closed!


Now that we have the easy yes and no answers out of the way, lets try and tackle the more difficult situations.


Scenario 3.  The label of Dithane F45 clearly states “Dithane F45 fungicide is a broad-spectrum fungicide recommended for outdoor or greenhouse grown crops.”  You look up what vegetables this fungicide can be applied to and you find asparagus, all types of corn, cucumbers, fennel, gourds, all types of melons, onions, potatoes, and squash.  That’s wonderful, except when you read how to mix up the product for greenhouse use, you only find rates per acre.


In a situation such as the one above, it is critical to follow the label to the letter.  If it is not possible, follow the applications instructions for greenhouse use, do not use the product in the greenhouse.


Scenario 4.  You have a crop that is found on the label, but the words greenhouse is nowhere to be found.  A good example would be the information found on the Thiodan 3EC label for cucumbers.  This label does not prohibit nor does it recommend its use for cucumbers in the greenhouse.  The label is what is termed “silent” on the subject of use in the greenhouse.

The examples provided in scenarios 3 and 4 are difficult for us in Extension to answer.  We really have three answers and we allow you to pick the one you want.


Answer 1.  Unless the label prohibits the use in the greenhouse (scenario 2), if you find your crops on the label then you can legally use the product.  However, you have to follow all of the recommendations intended for the field in your greenhouse applications.  Following label instructions is critical.  Remember, the first sentence under the “Directions of Use” indicates “It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling”.  What that means is that you are held liable by the Office of the Indiana State Chemist and EPA for not following instructions.


Answer 2.  Contact the manufacturer home office to see whether the product can be used in the greenhouse.  However, you better write the names down of the persons who allowed the use since most product warranties do not pay for damages even when their representatives say you can use it in violation of the label instructions.


Answer 3.  This is where we in Extension say from our perspective of erring on the side of safety that the product cannot be used.  It’s not a legal answer, but one that we feel very comfortable making since the research to support its use is lacking or the manufacturer is not willing to put this on the product label.  In fact, the label for Kocide 2000 makes it clear that it’s buyer beware when using their product on vegetables that do not have specific greenhouse use instructions.  It states, “Kocide 2000 may be used in greenhouses and shadehouses to control diseases on crops which appear on this label and specific instructions have been developed for crops listed.  The grower should bear in mind that the sensitivity of crops grown in greenhouses and shadehouses differs greatly from crops grown under field conditions.  Neither the manufacturer nor seller has determined whether or not Kocide 2000 can be used safely on all greenhouse and shadehouse grown crops.” 


What the above label does provide are instructions to the grower to determine if Kocide 2000 can be used safely prior to commercial use.  The label states, “In a small area, apply the recommended rates to the plants in questions and observe for 7 to 10 days for symptoms of phytotoxicity prior to commercial use.”  It also provides excellent information such as “Apply Kocide 2000 according to specific rates given for those crops in pounds per acre.  One level tablespoon of Kocide 2000 per 1000 square feet is equivalent to 1 pound per acre”.  This is an excellent label with clear instructions to the grower.  We wish they were all this good. 


And lastly, can we use this pesticide in the greenhouse is always a no with extension specialist if the crop is not listed on the label.  As most of you are aware, any pesticides we apply to crops must have a tolerance established with EPA.  For use in extension, it doesn’t matter if you know it works against an insect or disease.  If the crop is not on the label, then it’s illegal to use.


What we’ve presented so far is in the best interest of us in Extension.  We want to make sure that our recommendations work, and that you will come back to us with questions.  We want to give you the best answers possible, and be right 100 percent of the time.  We won’t go out on a limb when your greenhouse transplants and vegetables-your investment, source of income, and livelihood are at stake.


But what’s in your best interest as the grower?  It seems obvious that you want to protect your crops against the insects and diseases that are all too common in the greenhouse.  And we understand that your livelihood depends on producing quality and abundant crops.  Yet, on the other hand, if you experience any negative effects from the use of the product, you rightfully expect the company of the product to stand behind their products.  But companies would only guarantee their products if used according to label directions.  In the event that you applied a product that says do not use in the greenhouse, then their obvious answer is no.  What we will never know is whether they will stand behind their product when the greenhouse is not listed on the label.  In this case, it is buyer beware.


As always, you the grower must make up your own mind on how much risk you are willing to take.  The decision to use a product is an important consideration.  Be safe and use products labeled for greenhouses, labeled for the transplants or vegetables that you will grow in the greenhouse, and with instructions written for greenhouse use.  If you do this, then we can help clarify any questions that you might have on the specific products, and it will be a pleasure serving you.




Field Crops


Field Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension  IPM Specialist;   jwhalen@udel.edu

 Alfalfa Weevil.

We can now find economic levels of alfalfa weevil in numerous fields. In some cases, fields are approaching harvest so an early cutting may be the best control option. However, remember that cutting should only be used if you can cut within 5 days of finding an economic infestation. In addition, if economic levels are present before cutting, be sure to check regrowth within a week of cutting. Although populations are not as high as in 2002, damage to regrowth can be significant. In recent years, cool conditions after first harvest has not resulted in “stubble heat” to control populations. If fields are close to harvest and you spray instead of cut, be sure to use a chemical and rate with a short residual.


Field Corn.

We are starting to find the first cutworm leaf damage and cut plants. Even if a field was treated for cutworm before or at planting, be sure to sample all fields as soon as corn emerges.  A treatment in 1-2 leaf stage should be applied if you find 3% cut plants or 10% leaf feeding. The threshold in 3-4 leaf stage corn increases to 5% cut plants.  A pyrethroid or Lorsban will provide the best control. Fields should be scouted through the 5th leaf stage for cutworm damage. If cutworms are feeding below the soil surface, it will be important to treat as late in the day as possible, direct sprays to the base of the plants and use at least 30 gallons of water per acre.


Small Grains.

We continue to find low levels of cereal leaf beetle eggs and low levels of larvae have been found in wheat and barley in Kent and Sussex Counties. True armyworm moths and sawfly adults are also flying and laying eggs in fields where heads have emerged.  Aphid populations have also increased in some areas so fields should also be sampled for this insect pest.  Before head emergence, the threshold is 150 per foot of row. Once heads have emerged, the threshold is 20-25 per head with low beneficial activity (less than 1 per 50 aphids).  Although beneficial insects can keep aphid populations in check, cooler weather followed by a period of warm weather will allow aphids to increase, but beneficials often lag behind.


As you make plans to plant your first no-till full season beans, be sure to consider a treatment for seed corn maggot. In no-till fields, seed corn maggot will remain a problem through May. Flies continue to lay eggs and maggots will be present at the time of seed germination. Kernel Guard Supreme and KickStart VP are both labeled on soybeans.  The active ingredient in both products is permethrin.





Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


General Comments.
The next USDA supply and demand report will be released on Wednesday, May12th. We can expect sideways to neutral trading patterns in the commodities markets until the release of the report. Traders will be looking for adjustments in the demand numbers, particularly for an upward revision in USDA's projected corn exports number.

Weather will become increasingly important to the markets as we enter critical crop development stages this summer. Any weather problems developing in the corn belt once the crop is planted will send corn and soybean markets rocketing up. Conversely, in the event that we achieve 'ideal' growing conditions these markets are likely to go down fast and hard. For corn, with an 856 million bushel carry over projection for the current marketing year, the supply and demand situation becomes even more critical in the '04/'05 marketing year. Currently, parts of the western corn belt are reporting very dry planting conditions. This was being discounted in this morning's market comments by the old adage 'plant in the dust, the bins will bust'.

Weekly export reports continue to be price supportive, with a recent report indicating that the monthly crush for soybeans must drop by about 25 million bushels below the norm before USDA's stock figure of 115 million bushels can become a reality. Weekly exports for
U.S. corn have been reported to be at or near 44 million bushels per week for the past eight weeks, said to be one of the most active performances in recent history.

Market Strategy.
July '04 wheat futures are currently trading at $4.08 per bushel. The current price offering is within 20 to 22 cents of the life of contract high established in April. The new crop wheat harvest is beginning in the Southwest. This might be a good time to consider increasing new crop wheat sales.





Soil-Applied Herbicides to Emerged Fields - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu


There are times (like this year) that corn has been planted and is emerged without residual herbicides being applied; or to reduce the risk of crop injury, the residual herbicides are applied as the corn begins to emerge.  The greatest risk of failure comes with trying to control annual grasses such as foxtail and panicum after they emerge.  However, several products are available to control emerged grasses (e.g., Accent, Basis, Basis Gold, Celebrity Plus, Option, Steadfast (ATZ), glyphosate on Roundup Ready corn only, Lightning on CL/IMI-corn only, and Liberty on LibertyLink/GR corn.)  In most cases, these postemergence grass herbicides can be tank-mixed with the soil-applied products, if some annual grasses have already emerged. (See the herbicide label for additional information on tank-mixing- www.cdms.net or www.greenbook.net ).  For most products, do not apply in liquid fertilizer if corn has emerged or injury may occur.  Some early postemergence considerations are listed below.





Maximum field corn height

Maximum weed size

Atrazine # ^


1.5” broadleaf


do not apply to emerged corn

before emergence



before emergence

Prowl # ^

30” or 8 collars

before emergence




Axiom *

not labeled for emerged corn

before emergence


no later than 2 collars

3” broadleaves, 2” grasses

Bicep II Magnum / Cinch * #


2-leaf broadleaf

Bullet *


2-leaf broadleaf

Fultime * # ^


before emergence

Guardsman Max * ^


1.5” broadleaves, before grass emerges

Harness Xtra * ^


before emergence

Hornet # ^


3 to 8” broadleaf depending on rate and species

Keystone * # ^


before emergence

Lumax * #


3” broadleaves, before grass emerges


* indicates these products contain atrazine, but atrazine rates vary among the products, additional atrazine may be needed.

# indicates can be tankmixed with Steadfast for control of emerged grasses, use non-ionic surfactant, NOT crop oil.

^ indicates can be tankmixed with Option for control of emerged grasses.  Use caution when selecting adjuvant system.




Monitoring and Predicting Weed Emergence - Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;  mjv@udel.edu


The following is an articile written by Bill Curran, Weed Science, Crop and Soil Sciences and Dennis Calvin, Entomology, both at Penn State.  This is based on research that I was involved in as well.


An integral part of estimating competition between crops and weeds is identifying the emergence period for specific weed species.  Knowing when particular weed species are likely to emerge can be important for planning tillage and postemergence weed management programs. From it’s most basic stand point, early emerging species may be avoided by planting later, late emerging species may be better attacked by planting a competitive crop early, and species that have a prolonged emergence cycle may be the most difficult to manage in a summer annual crop.


Temperature-based emergence models have become popular because soil temperature serves as a fairly good predictor for weed seedling emergence as well as for the development of other pests.  Rainfall, surface residue, and tillage can also influence weed emergence, but temperature has the greatest influence during spring and early summer. Monitoring daily soil or air temperatures and tracking degree days (DD) is one of the easiest methods for predicting when weeds begin to emerge and for how long into the season.  The most common method is to track cumulative DD during the period of interest.  For weeds, this means monitoring daily high (Tmax) and low (Tmin) temperatures starting in early spring and continuing until mid July.  A base temperature (Tbase) is also required which is the minimum temperature necessary for growth and development or in the case of weeds, germination and emergence.  Several methods are used to calculate DD with the most common being: DD = (Tmax +Tmin )/ 2 - Tbase


We conducted research over the last three years looking at the reliability of soil DD as a means of predicting weed species emergence.  In our research, we monitored weed emergence across four locations in the Mid-Atlantic region over a two-year period.  The project was funded by the USDA Northeast IPM Program and included scientists from Penn State, the University of Delaware and Rutgers University. We used 48 F as our base temperature and developed emergence models for eight weed species.  Our results were positive and temperature proved to be a good predictor for weed emergence.  As an example, cumulative emergence for common ragweed is shown in Figure 1.  Ragweed has a relatively short emergence cycle and is one of the earliest emerging species. Taking it a step further, the estimated calendar date for 10, 50 and 95% cumulative emergence for the eight weed species is shown in Table 2 for the four locations.  Bridgeton and Georgetown are the most southern and Rock Springs in the most northern location.  We are continuing to collect additional field data this and next summer with the hope of improving our prediction capabilities.


Figure 1.  Actual (▲) and predicted () percent cumulative emergence for common ragweed. 


In the mean time, we have also launched with the help of ZedX Inc., a real time prediction tool that provides the estimated development for the eight weeds plus a number of insect pests.  An example map for common ragweed emergence is shown in Table 2.  You can access the real time prediction website through the PSU Entomology website (http://www.ento.psu.edu/extension/field_crops/default.htm).  We encourage you to check out the website and let us know how close or how far off from reality you think it is.


Table 2.  Estimated calendar date for 10, 50, and 95% cumulative emergence for eight annual weed species across four experimental locations.




Estimated Date


% Cumulative


 Soil DD

 Bridgeton, NJ

Georgetown, DE

Landisville, PA

Rock Springs, PA

Crabgrass, large



   May 1

 April 24

  May 8

  May 17



   May 23

 May 18

  May 29

  June 8




   July 3

 June 28

  July 10

  July 22








Foxtail, giant



   April 20

 April 13

  April 27

  May 6




   May 8

 May 2

  May 15

  May 24




   June 11

 June 6

  June 17

  June 27








Foxtail, yellow



   April 20

 April 13

  April 27

  May 6




   May 8

 May 2

  May 15

  May 23




   June 7

 June 2

  June 14

  June 24








Lambsquarters, common



   April 16

 April 9

  April 23

  April 30



   May 16

 May 11

  May 23

  June 1




   July 29

 July 23

  August 5

  August 24








Pigweed, smooth



   May 3

 April 28

  May 11

  May 19



   May 25

 May 20

  June 1

  June 10




   July 6

 July 2

  July 13

  July 26








Nightshade, eastern black



   May 16

 May 11

  May 23

  June 1



   June 4

 May 30

  June 10

  June 20




   July 7

 July 3

  July 14

  July 27








Ragweed, common



   April 1

 March 24

  April 8

  April 18



   April 15

 April 7

  April 22

  May 1




   May 13

 May 7

  May 19

  May 28











   April 20

 April 13

  April 27

  May 6




   May 7

 May 2

  May 14

  May 23




   June 8

 June 3

  June 15

  June 25












All equine owners are invited to a Colic Seminar on Saturday, May 15, 2004 at the Kent County Extension Office in Dover, DE from 9:00 – 11:00 a.m.  Dr. David Marshall, Equine Extension Veterinarian of the University of Delaware, will be speaking on colic prevention, symptoms, and treatment.  A short “Ask the Vet” question and answer session will follow.  Light breakfast refreshments will be available.  For directions and to register for this event, please call (302) 730-4000 by May 13th.


Susan Truehart Garey, Extension Agent Animal Science, University of Delaware




2004 Wye Research Center’s Spring Strawberry Twilight Meeting



What:  The 2004 Wye Research Center’s
           Spring Strawberry Twilight


Where:   University of Maryland

Wye Research and Education Center Queenstown MD

When:  Thursday, May 20, 2004

            6:00 PM

Who:  University and USDA Small Fruit



What will I see?

1)      2003/04 Annual plasticulture system: evaluation of Fall deployment date of floating row covers, planting date and varieties.

2)      High tunnel production for Fall and Spring harvest

3)      Greenhouse production system for early Spring harvest, utilizing, dormant, multi-crowned plants.


Pre-registration not required.    


For more information and directions: Contact: Debby Dant at 410-827-8056, ddant@umd.edu or Michael Newell at 410-827-7388, mnewell@umd.edu




 Univeristy of Maryland

Wye Research & Education Center Spring Crops Tour


May 19, 2004

6:30 p.m.


The Wye Research and Education Center's Spring Crops Twilight tour, originally scheduled for May 20, has been rescheduled to May 19th at 6:30.  Topics of interest will be small grain varieties, current weed, disease or insect issues and any topic of immediate agronomic concern.


Refreshments will be supplied.  Event will be held rain or shine.  Call Mark Sultenfuss at 410-827-7388 with any questions or topic suggestions.






                 Weather Summary


Week of April 29 to May 5, 2004


0.24 inches: May 2

0.25 inches: May 3

0.01 inches: May 4

0.01 inches: May 5


Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.


Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 81°F on May 2 to 59°F on May 4.

Lows Ranged from 64°F on May 2 to 42°F on May 4.


Soil Temperature:

63°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center: http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:

Tracy Wootten

Sussex County Extension Agent – Horticulture

University of Delaware



Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin.




2004 Black Cutworm Pheromone Trap Counts


Trapping Date: April 27 – May 3




Little Creek