Volume 13, Issue 25                                                                    September 9, 2005

Soybean Rust Update



Calhoun County in South Carolina and Washington County in Georgia are the newest counties to report soybean rust.  Oconee County in Georgia is the northernmost location where soybean rust has been found in 2005.  Calhoun County in SC is the furthest east that soybean rust has been found while Pearl River County in Mississippi is the furthest west that rust has been found in 2005.  Alabama now has 13 counties reported positive with rust; Florida has 22; Georgia has 15; Mississippi has two; and South Carolina has three.  There were 35 counties reporting soybean rust in the month of August with four reports so far in September.  Scouting is continuing in northern Alabama, Tennessee and the surrounding southeastern states as a result of Hurricane Katrina.  Models indicate that any spore movement from Hurricane Katrina will stay to our west.  Hurricane Ophelia will provide more opportunity for rust dispersal in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina.  Dry weather here will continue to keep the forecast for rust at a low level of risk.  Spraying for soybean rust is not recommended at the present time.


Continue to check the websites and toll free number for updates:

http://www.sbrusa.net http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/soybeanrust/.   DE/MD Soybean Rust Hotline 1-866-234-1347


Map of soybean rust detections in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and Florida.


Bob Mulrooney





Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Continue to sample fall planted fields for diamondback, cabbage looper, beet armyworm and fall armyworm larvae.  A treatment should be considered if you find 5% of the plants infested and before larvae move into the hearts of the plants.


Lima Beans

Continue to scout fields for lygus bugs and stinkbugs.  Treatment should be considered if you find 15 adults and/or nymphs per 50 sweeps.  Corn earworm moths continue to be attracted to blooming fields.  A treatment will be needed if you find one corn earworm larvae per 6 ft-of-row.  The higher labeled rates will be needed if population levels are high and worms are large at the time of treatment.  If soybean loopers become a problem again this year, remember that they are difficult to control and pyrethroid resistance has been documented in southern states.  Therefore, you may need to consider an application of Lannate LV at a rate of 2.5 to 3 pints/acre for soybean looper control.  If you use over 1.5 pt/A of Lannate, the days from last application to harvest (PHI) is 3 days.



Be sure to maintain a 5-7 day spray schedule for corn borer, corn earworm, beet armyworm and fall armyworm control.  You should also watch for flares in aphid populations.


Snap Beans

All fresh market and processing snap beans will need to be sprayed from the bud stage through harvest for corn borer and corn earworm control.  In addition, the highest labeled rates may be needed if population pressure is heavy in your area.



Continue to sample emerged fields for webworm and beet armyworm larvae.  The first small larvae and feeding on leaves can be found.  Controls should be applied when worms are small and before they have moved deep into the hearts of the plants.  Generally, at least 2 applications are needed to achieve control of webworms and beet armyworm.


Sweet Corn

Fresh market, silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2-day schedule.



Agronomic Crops


Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Many fields have reached or exceeded the threshold level for soybean aphids.  With the dry weather, many fields are still in the susceptible stage for damage.  The weather continues to be extremely favorable for soybean aphid population explosions and in many fields populations have doubled every 2-3 days.  So, be sure to sample all fields for soybean aphids since economic levels can be found in later planted full season as well as double crop soybeans.  The economic (treatment) threshold is 250 aphids per plant through growth stage R5 and through the beginning of R6 (full seed).  As a number of Midwestern entomologists point out, “you need to remember that the economic threshold is the population level at which a pest population should be controlled to prevent it from reaching the economic injury level. The economic injury level for soybean aphids is 1,000 aphids per plant -- this is the population you do not want to reach.  The goal is to not spray until the population reaches 250 per plant but before it reaches 1,000 per plant.”  In some situations in the Midwest treatment at the R6 stage has been needed if populations are still increasing and plants are under stress.  Yield losses have been documented in the Midwest and Canada at both the R5 and R6 stages.  You should also continue to watch for beneficial insects as well as parasitized aphids.


We continue to find double cropped fields with economics levels of corn earworm in both Kent and Sussex Counties. As in most years, double crop fields will be most susceptible to attack since open canopy blooming fields will be attractive to egg laying moths.  A treatment should be considered if you find 3 per 25 sweeps in narrow fields and 5 per 25 sweeps in wide row fields (20-inches or greater).


Small Grains

As you make plans to plant small grains, you need to remember that Hessian fly can still be a problem.  Since the fly survives as puparia ("flax seeds") in wheat stubble through the summer, you should still consider this pest as you make plans to plant small grains.  Although we have not seen widespread Hessian fly problems for a few years, we continue to see isolated fields with problems.  In most cases, damage has been the result of spring infestations.  Plants attacked in the spring have shortened and weakened stems that may eventually break just above the first or second node, causing plants to lodge near harvest.  The traditional method of control is based on delaying planting until after flies have emerged.  Warm fall weather conditions can extend fly emergence and egg laying beyond the fly-free dates, but these dates should still be used as a guideline for planting.  Since we rarely see plants stunted in the fall, we still feel that most of the damage we see is occurring from spring infestations.  Plants attacked in the fall at the one-leaf stage may be killed outright.  Wheat attacked later in the fall will be severely stunted, with the first tillers killed and plant growth delayed.  Plants infested in the fall can easily be recognized by their darker than normal bluish coloration and leaves with unusually broad blades.  Combinations of strategies are needed to reduce problems from Hessian fly:


Ø  Be sure to completely plow under infested wheat stubble to prevent flies from emerging.


Ø  Avoid planting wheat into last season's wheat stubble, especially if it was infested with Hessian fly.


Ø  Avoid planting wheat next to last season's wheat fields - the most serious infestations can occur when wheat is early planted into wheat stubble or into fields next to wheat stubble.


Ø  Eliminate volunteer wheat before planting to prevent early egg laying.


Ø  Do not use wheat as a fall cover crop near fields with infestations.


Ø  When possible, plant after the fly free date.  (Oct 3 – New Castle County; Oct 8 – Kent County; Oct 10 – Sussex County)


Ø  Plant resistant varieties.  You should look for varieties that have resistance to Biotype L.  Although some of these varieties may not be appropriate for Delaware, the following is a list of varieties from North Carolina that have exhibited good resistance to Biotype-L (the predominant biotype found in Delaware): P 26R12, P 26R38, P 26R61, Roane, USG 3350, and USG 3430.



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


'04/'05 Marketing Year Ends

September 1 marks the beginning of the '05/'06 marketing year for corn and soybeans and the end of the previous marketing year.  Results will be tabulated and balance sheets adjusted for any changes that may be necessary in forecasted vs. actual supply and demand estimates.  USDA will release the September supply/demand forecasts on Monday, September 12th.  There is a general consensus forming among crop forecasters that USDA is likely to decrease its estimate for '05 U.S. corn production while possibly increasing the estimate for soybean production.  Others contend that the '05 forecasted production numbers are likely to be higher for both corn and soybeans.  It will take the release of the report to confirm those contentions. 


LDP Process Refined

USDA has refined the LDP process, making it easier for producers to receive payments.  Producers can now fill out a new form CCC-633 EZ to express intentions of receiving LDPs for eligible crops on all farms and then submit page 2 of the new form when requesting LDPs.  A producer must have beneficial interest in the commodity at the time the CCC-633 EZ is completed and submitted.  A producer must request a payment for a specific quantity and provide acceptable production evidence, either when the producer first submits the form or any time before the final loan availability date.  The LDP rate is based on the earlier of two dates -- either the date payment is requested, or the date beneficial interest is lost.





Pesticide Safety Training and Testing for Pesticide Applicators Certification

September 21 & 22, 2005

Delaware Dept. of Agriculture Conference Center

Dover, DE


Sept 21 is training – 8:30 am – 4:30 pm.  Training continues the morning of September 22, from 8:30 am – noon.  The exam starts at 1:00 pm on September 22.



Delaware Soybean Crop Profile


The Delaware Soybean Crop Profile has been posted to the web at:  http://www.udel.edu/pesticide/DEsoybeancropprofile.doc


This document will be used by the US/EPA when making pesticide regulatory decisions on products used in soybean.  Please send your comments and suggestions for improvement on this document to Susan King at swhitney@udel.edu.




Weather Summary



Week of September 1 to September 7, 2005

Readings Taken from Midnight to Midnight



No rainfall was recorded.


Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 89°F on September 2 to 78°F on September 6.

Lows Ranged from 64°F on September 1 to 54°F on September 6 and September 7.


Soil Temperature:

81°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)



Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:  http://www.rec.udel.edu


Weekly Crop Update is Compiled and Edited By:


Emmalea Ernest

Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

University of Delaware



Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex,

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disability, age or national origin.