Volume 13, Issue 27                                                                    September 23, 2005

Soybean Rust Update



Three additional counties in Georgia have confirmed Asian soybean rust detections: Terrell Co., Lanier Co., and Johnson Co all of which neighbor counties with previous rust detections.  These finds have all been in commercial fields.  The range of soybean rust detections for 2005 now extends from Pearl River Co., Mississippi in the west to Calhoun Co., South Carolina in the east, to Oconee Co., Georgia in the north. 


The spore transport model predicted new spore depositions in the Florida Panhandle, southeastern Louisiana, southern Mississippi, southern Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina on Thursday, September 22.  This area may expand into southeastern Texas, all of Louisiana, and most of Mississippi and Alabama on Friday, September 23.  Depending on the track of Hurricane Rita there could be additional spore transport to the southern portion of the Midwest on Saturday.


The level of risk for soybean rust on the Delmarva Peninsula remains low, and fungicide applications are not recommended at this time.  With the warm weather we have been experiencing, soybeans are maturing quickly and it is unlikely that rust will be a problem for us this year.


Continue to check the websites and toll free number for updates:

http://www.sbrusa.net http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/soybeanrust/

DE/MD Soybean Rust Hotline 1-866-234-1347


Bob Mulrooney





Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Continue to sample fields for diamondback, cabbage looper, fall armyworm and beet armyworm.  A treatment should be considered if you find 5% of the plants infested.


Lima Beans

Continue to scout fields for corn earworm, beet armyworm and soybean loopers through the end of the season.  



Be sure to maintain a 7-day spray schedule for corn borer, corn earworm, beet armyworm and fall armyworm control.  You should also continue to watch for aphid explosions.  You may also see an increase in whitefly populations.  A number of products are labeled on peppers for whitefly control; however, most entomologists in the region do not have experience with the efficacy of these products.  Information from other regions indicates that Provado (0 day PHI) and Assail (7 day PHI) can provide good control.  However, both products state on the label that they should not be applied to heavy populations and they must be applied before nymphs are present.  In addition, multiple applications will probably be needed. 


Snap Beans

Continue to spray snap beans from the bud stage through harvest for corn borer and corn earworm control.  We have also had reports of whiteflies in snap beans.  As with other crops, we have limited experience with the efficacy of labeled products on whiteflies.  As indicated above under peppers, other regions report good whitefly control with Provado (7-day PHI on beans) if applied early.  We continue to hear reports of heavy beet armyworm in fields in Virginia but so far we have not seen a similar situation.  Information on beet armyworm in Virginia can be found at http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/



Continue to scout for webworms, beet armyworm and aphids.  Although both worm pests can be found, we have seen an increase in beet armyworm levels.  As a general guideline, controls should be applied when 5% of the plants are infested with small worms and before they have moved deep into the hearts of the plants.  Also, remember that both insects can produce webbing on the plants.  You should also continue to watch for an increase in aphid populations.  A warm dry fall can result in population explosions.  Assail, Fulfill and Provado are labeled for aphid control in spinach.  With aphid control, good coverage is essential.  Remember to check the label for days to harvest after the last application.


Sweet Corn

Any very late planted fresh market silking sweet corn should be sprayed on a 2-3 day schedule until the end of season.



Agronomic Crops


Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



With the continued warm weather, late season insect problems could still occur in double crop fields.  Although we have not heard of any high populations, you will still need to watch for earworms, beet armyworms and soybean loopers.  There are reports of high soybean looper populations in a few Virginia fields.  Grasshoppers still remain active as well.  You should also watch for stinkbugs.  Information from Ames Herbert in Virginia indicates that plants should be protected until they reach full R6, that is, until seeds are full sized.  “At that point, the pod wall begins to toughen, and plants become less dependent on leaf area.  Prior to R6, fields may need some additional late season protection if thresholds are reached.”



Weed Control in Seedling AlfalfaMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Getting seedling alfalfa off to a good start is critical for a long-term quality stand.  The following herbicide suggestions are for pure alfalfa stands.  Gramoxone or Roundup can be used prior to planting to kill emerged weeds.  Balan or Eptam can be used pre-plant incorporated for control of small-seeded broadleaves such as pigweed or lambsquarters and most annual grasses.  Residual control of either Balan or Eptam is only a few weeks.  Butyrac, Buctril, Pursuit, Raptor, and others can only be used after the alfalfa has emerged and developed trifoliate leaves.  Fall postemergence treatments include Butyrac 200 (2 to 4 alfalfa trifoliates), Buctril (at least 4 trifoliates), Kerb, Poast Plus, Select, or Pursuit or Raptor (at least 2 trifoliates).  Pursuit or Raptor provides the broadest spectrum of control, and can be tank-mixed with Buctril or Butyrac to improve control.  The addition of Buctril to Pursuit will improve German moss, lambsquarters, and henbit control.  Kerb will provide the best common chickweed control, but it must be applied when soil temperatures are 50 degrees or less and requires rainfall for activation.  Applications to small weeds are critical for effective control.  Poast Plus and Select are effective only on grasses, and cannot be used on alfalfa plus grass stands.  Most of the labeled herbicides can cause some crop injury to the alfalfa.



Weed Control for Grass or Mixed Pasture PlantingsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Weed control options are very limited for establishing a grass or mixed stand pasture.  There are no products to use pre-plant incorporated or preemergence that will provide residual control and not injure the crop.  Early postemergence options are also very limited.  Cimmaron, Banvel, Overdrive, Crossbow, or 2,4-D can be used for pure grass seedlings (they will kill clovers and alfalfa) but grasses need to be well established at time of application.  Cimmarron can injure fescue and ryegrass.  Fescue injury can be reduced if Cimarron is tankmixed with 2,4-D. 



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Corn Market Update

The lowest cash corn prices for the year are most likely to occur within the next three weeks.  This means that the best LDPs for new crop corn are going to be available during this same time period.  For corn that was forward contracted, the net price received is likely to be in the $3.00 per bushel range.  That's good news when one considers that Dec '05 corn futures are currently trading at $2.06 per bushel, adding in a basis of 5 over equates to a current local cash price offer of $2.11 per bushel for field direct sales.  The LDP rate on corn, this morning, is at 41 cents per bushel, about 5 cents per bushel less than a week ago.  Today's LDP rate plus the spot cash price offer of $2.11 per bushel equates to a net price received of $2.52 per bushel.  For those that are not holding any hedge profits on unpriced corn going into harvest and attempting to capture the highest likely LDP rates for the season, the only question remaining is whether to purchase a call option or a futures contract on field direct sales?  Answering the question is difficult at best.  Here’s a possible explanation:


USDA's September crop report was bearish, with the '05 U.S. corn production number coming in at 10.639 billion bushels, 289 million bushels larger than the August estimate.  Besides the fact that the projected production was much higher than many crop forecasters were expecting, if materializing, it happens to be the second largest corn crop on record in U.S. history!  The '05 corn crop is expected to be harvested rapidly, providing the rainfall and/or wind damage from Hurricane Rita doesn't slow harvest down or negatively impact grain export shipments in a significant manner.  The impact on the grain industry from the pending hurricane, which is expected to make landfall this weekend, will become known sometime next week.


Considering carry in at 2.125 billion bushels, production at 10.639 billion bushels, and imports of 10 million bushels, U.S. total corn supply is now projected at 12.774 billion bushels for the '05/'06 marketing year.  Total use projections are at 10.695 billion bushels, slightly higher than '05 corn production, placing ending stocks at 2.079 billion bushels.  This level of projected carry out is viewed as more than adequate to burdensome.  If we were to stop our analysis of the potential impact on corn prices right here, we'd likely not anticipate any more than market carry returns to '05 corn production that is stored.  However, there is more to this developing scenario than what initially meets the eye and that is the price of energy and the excessively high price of inputs for corn production.  The contention in last week's grain marketing highlights was that the high price of inputs for corn production is likely to reduce corn acres that are planted in the U.S. next spring.  Interestingly enough, that contention is now being mentioned by private grain marketing firms.


Market Strategy

For those desiring to capture the maximum LDP for their '05 corn crop, there are three options: field direct sales, thereby collecting the LDP upon taking the cash spot sale; taking advantage of the free storage period and eventually assigning the corn to a No Price Established (NPE) contract; or placing the corn in storage and requesting an immediate LDP payment.  As a reminder, FSA now has electronic (eLDP) available.  Farmers can get LDP payments transferred to their accounts on the day the electronic form is filed.  Contact your county FSA office for details.


A word of caution, when using the NPE contract it is possible to lock in the LDP payment as long as beneficial interest is held by the seller.  Ownership (beneficial interest) of the grain passes to the grain buyer once the NPE contract is entered into.  The only window for affixing an LDP payment to an NPE contract is prior to assigning the corn to the contract which is any time during the free storage period or on the date that the free storage period ends and the corn is assigned to the NPE contract.  At that point the beneficial interest will transfer to the grain buyer moving the corn to NPE status, providing no other provisions have been made.  Presently, grain being delivered to an elevator with the intention of placing it under an NPE contract should be LDP'd early in the free storage period in order to achieve the anticipated best LDP.  It is important to note that farmers like to use NPE contracts for commercial grain storage because the NPE contract used for stored grain gives the seller the opportunity to benefit from both basis gain and price improvement.





Fall Weed ScoutingMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Fall is an important time to take stock of how effective your weed programs were this year.  Success in improving or modifying your weed management program for next season is going to depend on your knowledge of weeds in that field.  This fall when it is fresh in your mind take note of which weeds were present in the field, how heavy the infestation was, and where those patches were located.  Taking notes as you are combining may be the best time to locate these weeds.  Also, note size of the weeds.  If the weeds are small and did most of their growing after the crop began to dry down, they will not impact yield and they will not produce seeds that can plague you next year.  These weeds were either suppressed by your herbicide program or emerged after your herbicides had been played out.  These weeds are of little consequence.  On the other hand, note those weeds that are large and competed with the crop all season. 


If a field was weedy here a few things to consider:

First, if a weed was not controlled, review the label and extension information to be sure that the weed species is supposed to be controlled by that herbicide(s).  If the herbicides you used are not effective then you may need to switch or include another herbicide in you program.  Also, with all the rain at times this season, poor herbicide performance from your residual herbicides was probably due to the herbicide being moved out of the root zone too quickly. 


If the weed was supposed to be controlled by your program, and the herbicide was a triazine or an ALS-inhibiting herbicide, see your county extension agent to discuss the potential of herbicide-resistant weeds.  ALS-inhibiting herbicides include Accent, Steadfast, Exceed, Permit, Sceptor, Pursuit, and Harmony GT etc.  If you used glyphosate be aware that new reports of glyphosate-resistance have shown up in other areas of the US, but if more than one species was not controlled in your field, it is less likely to be a resistance problem.


If perennials are a problem, scouting gives you a chance to locate the patches and identify areas to spot-spray with a post-harvest treatment.  Also you can plan ahead for next season to help determine if a spot-treatment is appropriate or if the perennials are wide-spread and you need to treat the entire field.







Crop Management School

November 15-17, 2005

Princess Royale Hotel and Conference Center

Ocean City, MD


Register on line at: http://www.nrsl.umd.edu/extension/crops/home.cfm


For more information contact Bob Kratochvil at rkratoch@umd.edu



Weather Summary



Week of September 15 to September 21, 2005

Readings Taken from Midnight to Midnight



0.45 inch: September 17

0.01 inch: September 18

0.06 inch: September 20


Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 91°F on September 17 to 82°F on September 21.

Lows Ranged from 76°F on September 15 to 59°F on September 21.


Soil Temperature:

82°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)



Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:  http://www.rec.udel.edu


Weekly Crop Update is Compiled and Edited By:


Emmalea Ernest

Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

University of Delaware



Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex,

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disability, age or national origin.