Volume 13, Issue 28                                                                    September 30, 2005


Last Issue of Weekly Crop Update for 2005  - Emmalea Ernest, Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops; emmalea@udel.edu

 

This is the last issue of Weekly Crop Update for the 2005 season.  I hope that this newsletter has been a useful resource for you throughout the past six months.  My thanks to the individuals who have contributed articles this year and to our office staff at the REC, who make sure the WCU gets to our fax and mail subscribers.

 

As editor of WCU, I appreciate your comments and suggestions for improvement of this publication.  Please take a few minutes to fill out the survey online.  Go to http://www.rec.udel.edu/TopLevel/Publicat.htm and click on the link that says “2005 Survey”.  All online survey responses are anonymous. 

 

Best wishes for a safe and prosperous fall harvest season.  I look forward to seeing and meeting many of you at meetings this winter.

 

Kind regards,

 

Emmalea

 

 

Soybean Rust Update

 

 

As of this writing no soybean rust has been found outside of the South (FL, GA, AL, SC, MS).  Many soybeans in DE are well past growth stage 7 (one brown pod on main stem) and are therefore not affected by soybean rust.  It looks like we will not see soybean rust this season, but if we do it will be too late to affect yields.

 

Delaware, along with other soybean growing states, prepared well in advance to detect soybean rust and spray if necessary.  We participated in the national sentinel plot effort to plant small plots of early maturing soybeans well in advance of normal planting dates to have plants that would be most likely infected if spores arrived in July as initially predicted.  The Delaware Soybean Board provided funding to hire survey technicians to check these sentinel plots in addition to 42 commercial fields scattered throughout the state.  Two survey technicians were hired, Zack Skibo and Ted Haas and trained by myself and Nancy Gregory.  Supervision and vehicles were provided by the Delaware Dept. of Agriculture.  In addition four DDA employees provided some additional scouting and support for the survey team.

The survey team visited all the 50 plots once a week from June until the first week in September.  They logged more that 13,000 miles this summer looking at 2,300 acres of soybeans.  This equals 1.3% of 180,000 DE acres planted in soybeans (estimated by DE Agriculture Statistics Service in March, 2005).  A small number of late maturing soybean fields continue to be checked.  Many of the original fields and sentinel plots are too mature to provide any information currently.  This was a monumental task given the distance between the plots, hot weather and the size of the soybeans later in the season.  If soybean rust was going to be found in DE this effort would provide the most likely way to find it.  It was this careful survey approach in the South that detected soybean rust in all the states where it was found this year.

It may be too early to answer the questions that many of us have about why soybean rust did not turn out to be the problem it was predicted to be.  (I am glad it didn’t.)  Several reasons may account for the lack of rust this season.  First would be the low number of rust spores that overwintered and the lack of infection early.  Second would be that kudzu did not turn out to be very susceptible to soybean rust.  Kudzu populations in the US appear to be less susceptible to soybean rust than those that are present in Brazil.  This also reduced the number of rust spores that could be transported north.  The assumption was that kudzu would be the overwintering host and bridge for spore production between soybean growing areas, thus producing large numbers of spores for infection.  Fortunately this did not happen in the scale that was predicted initially.  Much more information will be forthcoming as the season ends and we learn more clearly what happened down South and how it will affect our plans for soybean rust control in 2006.

 

Lastly, I wanted to thank all those that supported this soybean rust effort including Secretary of Ag, Michael Scuse, who convened the Soybean Rust Task Force, and supported all our efforts, and the other DDA staff Faith Kuehn, Randy Ciurlino, Jim Kroon and others; the Soybean Rust Task Force members; Colleen Kitzmiller, USDA/APHIS; our Triage team; Sentinel plot cooperators; R.C. Willin, Bud Murray, Ray Vincent, and Harris Swain from DSU as well as all the soybean growers that participated in the Soybean Board Survey.  Thanks also go to Ray Kaczmarczyk and his colleagues at DuPont that taught our spray clinics.  Lastly are my colleagues in Extension Joanne Whalen, Marty Spellman, the county agents, REC Staff including the Director Mark Isaacs, our Dean, Dr. Robin Morgan, Extension Director Jan Seitz, and the other Specialists who supported all our efforts to bring the best information available to our soybean industry in Delaware.

Bob Mulrooney

 

 

Vegetables

 

Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Spinach

As indicated in previous newsletters, be sure to always check the label before spraying to determine the pre-harvest interval (number of days between last application and harvest).  The pre-harvest interval (PHI) for Fulfill on spinach is listed incorrectly in the Vegetable Recommendation Guide as a 0 day PHI. The correct PHI is 7 days.

 

 

Vegetable Crop Diseases Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Spinach

Cercospora leafspot has appeared in many fields this past week.  This is a leaf spotting disease caused by the fungus Cercospora.  This fungus produces numerous small circular to angular, grayish-brown spots with a reddish-brown margin.  I have slides in my collection from the fall of 1983 documenting a Cercospora outbreak then.  It has been considered a minor disease in the past but can cause large amounts of leaf spotting under favorable conditions.  If needed Amistar/Quadris, Cabrio and copper are labeled for control.  No more than two sequential applications of either Amistar/Quadris or Cabrio should be made to avoid resistance in the fungus.

 

Lima Beans

Soybean rust never arrived and neither did our section 18 requests for fungicides to control it on beans other than soybean.  Hopefully this situation will be remedied by next season.  On the bright side, as of this writing, snapbeans and lima beans were planted in the South adjacent to soybean rust infected soybeans and, to date, no infection has been detected on the limas or snaps.  We should know more about this once the season is over and we have had a chance to share data with other researchers.  Downy mildew was a very minor problem this season.  The weather conditions were very unfavorable for infection.  We have been able to favor it in inoculated small plot research at Georgetown and Newark and will have fungicide and variety trial results to continue our efforts to control downy mildew.  Anthracnose is also present in many fields at the present time.  Infected leaves have small (up to 1/2 inch), irregular dark, rusty-brown spots.  Rotations of two years or more will aid control.  I have never seen anthracnose at what I would call threshold levels.  Amistar is labeled if needed.

 

 

Nematodes in Vegetables Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Fall is the best time to soil sample for nematode pests such as root knot, lesion, and other plant parasitic nematodes.  After fall harvest, but before any fall tillage is done, take soil cores 6-8 inches deep between plants in the row.  Samples should be taken in the root zone of the old crop.  Twenty core samples should be taken from random spots in the field and placed in a plastic bucket, gently mixed, and a pint of soil submitted for analysis.  Nematode test bags and instructions are available for purchase from the county extension offices.  Samples cost $10.00.  Fall sampling for root knot nematodes is strongly recommended for fields that will be planted in cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupes, lima beans or other high value vegetables where root knot could reduce production.  Instructions and a form can also be found at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/pdf/Nematode_Assay_taking_samples.pdf

 

 

Fall Sanitation for Disease Control in Vegetable Crops Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

In vegetable production it is not a good idea to leave old crop residue in the field any longer than necessary.  If the crop is allowed to survive after harvest, fungi that cause many diseases continue to increase on the surviving plants.  This allows higher numbers of the fungus to potentially survive until next season.  Sanitation (plowing or disking the old crop) will help prevent pathogen carry-over.

 

 

Agronomic Crops

 

Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

 

Soybeans

In general, soybean loopers have not been a major problem in late planted soybeans in our area.  However, the most recent report from Virginia indicates that they are finding some fields at threshold level, especially in southeast Virginia.  Please click in the following link to see results of a recent insecticide trial in Virginia.  http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/

 

 

Use Fungicide Treated Small Grain Seed Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

Be sure to plant fungicide treated seed for control of loose smut and common bunt, especially if you are saving your own seed for planting.  Select varieties that are high yielding as well as resistant to powdery mildew and stripe rust.  For those that may have missed it the information on stripe rust resistance was supplied in Issue 20, August 5: http://www.rec.udel.edu/update05/Voume13,Issue20.htm.

 

 

Testing for Soybean Cyst Nematode Bob Mulrooney; Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 

It is never too late to detect SCN if you have areas of fields that have poor yields and you can’t figure out why.  Soil samples can be taken after harvest but before fall tillage.  Instructions and a form can be found at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/pdf/Nematode_Assay_taking_samples.pdf

 

 

New Herbicide for Winter WheatMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

 

Bayer CropScience has a new postemergence herbicide registered for grass weeds, including annual ryegrass, in winter wheat.  The product is called Osprey and its active ingredient is mesosulfuron (an ALS-inhibiting herbicide).  It is not labeled for barley.  Application timing is emergence to jointing of wheat or 2-leaf to 2-tiller grasses.  Osprey requires a non-ionic surfactant plus nitrogen.  Fertilizer nitrogen (28 to 32% N solutions) should be used at 1 to 2 qt/A.  Ammonium sulfate (AMS) can be used at 1.5 to 3 lb/A.  It is also labeled with methylated seed oil.  Osprey is used at 3.2 to 4.75 oz wt/A.  Osprey is not labeled for use with liquid fertilizer carriers.  The label states that liquid fertilizer solutions should be no more than 15% of the spray carrier volume.  Nitrogen fertilizer greater than 15% of the spray volume should not be applied within 14 days of the Osprey application which makes timing of spring applications difficult.  As a result, fall applications are more appropriate than spring.  Osprey can be tankmixed with a Harmony GT and Harmony Extra (as well as other herbicides), but tankmixtures with Banvel/Clarity or 2,4-D will reduce grass control.  The grasses specifically mentioned on the label that are important in our region are annual ryegrass (it will not control volunteer grain rye), annual bluegrass, and roughstalk bluegrass.  The label lists brome species as suppression.  Broadleaf activity is good on wild radish and wild mustard plus suppression of henbit and common chickweed.  UD has tested Osprey for ryegrass the past two to three years with favorable results.  We do not have experience with the other grass species listed.  Soybeans can be planted 90 days after treatment and refer to the label for other crops.

 

 

Be Sure to Use a Burndown With No-Till Small GrainsMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

 

More and more fields are being planted as no-till small grains.  These fields need a non-selective herbicide prior to emergence (either Gramoxone or glyphosate).  Too often these fields look ‘clean’ at planting time but numerous weeds have emerged and are quite small.  These weeds are much easier to control prior to planting than later.  Harmony GT or Harmony Extra are not replacements for these non-selective herbicides.

 

 

Fall Herbicide Treatments for No-TillMark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

 

Fall herbicide treatments have been discussed as options for no-till crops.  The idea is to apply an herbicide this fall that will control existing weeds and possibly provide residual weed control so that fields do not have lots of vegetation next spring.  Less vegetation in the spring allows the soil to warm up faster.  This practice has worked in many of the mid-west states, but their winters are colder and often with more snow cover.  We have looked at various herbicides the past few years for no-till soybeans.  Products tested include Valor, Canopy EX, and Express.  None of the products at any rate provided 100% weed control at time of soybean planting, but they did reduce the number, size, and vigor of many weed species.  In almost all cases a non-selective herbicide was needed at planting, but at lower rates than if no fall treatment was applied.  Valor applied at 2 to 2.5 oz wt/A did a nice job in controlling horseweed, chickweed, and field pansy.  Valor does allow rotation to corn in the spring, but not vegetables.  In our trials the fall treatments did get applied with 2,4-D, Gramoxone, and/or Banvel to be sure plants that emerged in the early fall were controlled.  Fall treatments should be applied while the plants are still actively growing.  If you are considering a fall herbicide program, be sure to consider all pros and cons, including resistance management.

 

 

Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

 

Soy Market Update

Improved weather conditions during the month of August resulted in an increase in the September production forecast for U.S. soybeans.  The September estimate placed U.S. soybean production at 2.856 billion bushels from 72.2 million acres harvested at 39.6 bushels per acre.  The '05 U.S. soybean crop, while projected to be 65 million bushels larger than last month's estimate, is 285 million bushels less than the '04 crop size.  The ending stock estimate for the U.S. soybean crop is now placed at 205 million bushels, a 25 million bushel increase from the August estimate.  The production increase was only partly reflected in the ending stocks estimate primarily because of a 15 million bushel projected increase in crushings and a 20 million bushel increase in projected exports.  Ending stocks for soybean meal were left unchanged from the previous month, while ending stocks for soybean oil were increased by 115 million pounds.  The season average price for U.S. soybean producers was lowered by 45 cents per bushel on both ends of the price range from the August report, now placed at $5.15 to $6.05 per bushel.  Currently, Nov '05 soybean futures are trading at $5.60 per bushel, mid-range to the projected season average price.  The Delaware loan rate for soybeans is $5.13 per bushel.  

 

Brazil and Argentina are now projected to produce 99 million metric tons (mmt) of soybeans in the '05/'06 marketing year, as compared to 90 mmt last year.  Global oilseed production for the '05/'06 marketing year, projected at 379.34 million metric tons (mmt) in the September report, is down 0.7 mmt from the '04/'05 level.  Global oilseed stocks for the '05/'06 marketing year were reduced 3.76 mmt this month and are now estimated at 52.31 mmt.  World ending stocks of soybeans are projected at 443.92 mmt for the '05/'06 marketing year, 1.06 mmt less than the carry in from the '04/'05 marketing year.

 

Market Strategy

Soybean harvest in the U.S. has gotten underway.  With the beginning of the U.S. harvest season and the realization that the Southern Hemisphere crop is just around the corner, there is a distinct possibility that soybean prices will work lower, from their current levels, particularly as harvest pressure builds.  For soybeans that are currently being harvested, it makes sense to take advantage of the 'free storage' period.  The soybeans can be assigned to either existing outstanding forward contracts that need to be filled, or to a No Price Established contract sometime between now and the end of the free storage period.  The free storage period affords the soybean seller a window of opportunity before having to transfer beneficial interest to the buyer.  A soybean producer looses beneficial interest in soybeans being sold once the buyer takes ownership.  LDP payments can not be obtained once the seller transfers beneficial interest to the buyer.

 

New crop soybean basis is presently being bid at 15 under to 20 under Nov '05 in Southern Delaware.  The spot cash price for new and old crop soybeans is currently $5.53 per bushel.  The Delaware loan rate for soybeans is $5.13 per bushel.  An LDP on new crop soybeans is not available as of this writing.  However, the indication at the current PCP is that Delaware soybean producers are currently just 9 cents shy of collecting an LDP on '05 soybean production.  Placing new crop soybeans on temporary storage for the purpose of collecting an LDP payment is taking a risk.  The LDP is likely to kick in as harvest pressure takes the soybean price lower.  However, the net price eventually received may not be any better than today's spot price.  With the harvest price dropping, the question of whether to hold new crop soybeans for the purpose of working the LDP, or not, is likely to become a moot point in about one week's time as the harvest price drops low enough to trigger the LDP.  Once harvest pressure takes soybean prices lower, it will become necessary to look at the options available for locking in the LDP.  To some degree the decision of whether to store unpriced soybeans will depend on the market carry being reflected in the market once harvest pressure builds.

 

 

Announcements

 

Delaware Agriculture Week

January 16 to 21, 2006

 

Delaware Agriculture Week, a new concept that consolidates agricultural meetings while celebrating agriculture at the same time, is scheduled for the week of January 16 to 21, 2006.  The University of Delaware Cooperative Extension, Delaware State University Cooperative Extension and the Delaware Department of Agriculture are cooperating to organize the week of agricultural-related events, capped by the Agricultural Industry Dinner on Saturday night, January 21.

 

The General Agenda below outlines the various educational meetings, commodity group sessions, and related events.  Most will take place at the Delaware State Fairgrounds, but the Hort Expo will take place in Dover and the Delmarva Forestry Seminar will take place at the University of Delaware campus in Lewes.  There is something for everyone, including a diverse array of exhibitors.

 

The complete detailed program will be mailed out in December, but circle the week of January 16 to 21 now for Delaware Agriculture Week.

 

Ag Week General Agenda

 

Monday, January 16

 

Dairy Educational Session

State Fairgrounds – 9 to 4 PM

 

Meat Goat Seminars for Current Producers

State Fairgrounds – 4:30 to 9 PM

 

Vegetable Production Seminar for Small, Specialized, or Part-Time Producers

State Fairgrounds – 6 to 9 PM

 

Tuesday, January 17

 

Vegetable Growers Assn. of Delaware Annual Meeting

State Fairgrounds

 

General Session – 9 to Noon

Fresh Market Crops Session – 1:30 to 4 PM

Vine Crops Session 1:30 to 4 PM

Delaware Vegetable Growers Assn. Banquet – 6 PM

 

Wednesday, January 18

 

Delaware Horticulture Expo

Modern Maturity Center - Dover – 8AM to 5 PM

 

Vegetable Growers Assn. of Delaware Annual Meeting

State Fairgrounds

 

Processing Crops Session - 9 to 4 PM

Potato Growers Session - 9 to Noon

Direct Marketing Program - 1:30 to 4 PM

Ag Tourism/AgTainment/Direct Marketing

 

Conservation Program - Farm Bill/Federal Program/ on Conservation NRCS, FSA

State Fairgrounds – 7 to 9 PM

 

Thursday, January 19

 

Delaware Pesticide Applicators Conference

Modern Maturity Center, Dover – 8 AM to 5 PM

 

Delaware Agronomy Day I

State Fairgrounds

 

Soybean Seminar/Delaware Soybean Board - 9 AM to 11:30

General Agronomy Session - 1:30 to 4:00 PM

Grain Marketing Strategic Outlook - 1:30 to 4:00 PM

Forage/Hay Seminar for Part-time Producers - 6 to 9 PM

 

Aquaculture: the Possibilities

State Fairgrounds – 1:30 to 4:00

 

Conservation Programs State Programs for Conservation and Ag Land Preservation DDA, DENREC, Districts

State Fairgrounds - 7 to 9 PM

 

Friday, January 20

 

Delaware Agronomy Day II

State Fairgrounds

 

Forage Seminar - 9 to 3:30 AM

Grain Marketing Workshop - 1:30 to 4:00 PM

 

Poultry Management & Nutrient Management

State Fairgrounds - 8:30 to 4:00 PM

 

Equine Educational Meetings

State Fairgrounds – 6 to 9 PM

 

Standardbred Owners Seminar

Equine Veterinarians Workshop

Standardbred Producers Seminar

 

Saturday, January 21

 

Equine Educational Meetings

State Fairgrounds – 9 AM to Noon

 

I.           Youth Track – Basic Principles

II.        Seminar for Pleasure  and Show Horse Owners

III.      Standard Bred Owners Seminar

 

Aquaculture: the Possibilities

State Fairgrounds - 9:00 AM to Noon

 

Delaware Organic Growers Association

State Fairgrounds - 9 AM to Noon

 

Delmarva Forestry Seminar

The Virden Center, Lewes, Delaware

9AM to 4 PM

 

Delaware Agricultural Industry Dinner

Dover

 


 

Women in Agriculture Conference

February 9 – 10, 2006

Sheraton Dover Hotel, Dover, DE

 

More information online at: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/kent/womeninag.htm

 


 

Mid-Atlantic

Crop Management School

November 15-17, 2005

Princess Royale Hotel and Conference Center

Ocean City, MD

 

Register on line at: http://www.nrsl.umd.edu/extension/crops/home.cfm

 

For more information contact Bob Kratochvil at rkratoch@umd.edu

 


 

Pasture Walk

“The Hows and Whys of Livestock Pasture Management on the Webb Farm”

Saturday, October 22, 2005     9:30 – 11:30 AM

 

University of Delaware Webb Farm, Newark, DE (enter on east side of RT 72, approx. ½ mile north of intersection with RT 4)

 

Scott Hopkins, our UD farm superintendent, will lead a walking tour of our pastures utilized for beef cattle, equine, and sheep. He will discuss pasture grass species, fencing, fertility, haying opportunities, weed and insect pest management, conservation practices, and other management considerations with some insight into why and how he makes his management decisions. Cooperative Extension staff, other College of Agriculture and Natural Resources staff, local NRCS and Conservation District staff will be present to chime in as appropriate and address issues that you may raise as we tour.

 

Dress comfortably for a pasture setting!  If it rains we will adjust the program and move inside the arena.

 

We will apply for both DE Pesticide and Nutrient Management re-certification credit.

 

This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome. To register, for more information or special consideration in accessing this meeting, please call our office in advance, at (302) 831-2667. 

 

 


 

Blendt Farm Pole Bean Trial Open House

Wednesday, October 12, 2005     5:30 – 7:30 PM

Delaware State University Research Farm

(located just south of Smyrna  on Smyrna Liepsic Rd. from RT 13)

 

Food will be provided.

 

If you have any questions, please contact

John Clendaniel (302) 857-6425


 

Pasture Walk

Saturday, January 21, 2006

Wye Research and Education Center

Queenstown, MD

 

Walk will feature grazing of fall accumulated tall fescue with discussion of when to fertilize to maximize fall accumulation.

 

Please pre-register if possible.

 

For more information please contact:

Lester Vough, University of Maryland  (301) 405-1322

Elmer Dengler, MD NRCS  (433) 482-2922

Maria Labreveux, Delaware State University

(302) 857-6414

Richard Taylor, University of Delaware

(302) 831-1383

 


 

 

Weather Summary

 

http://www.rec.udel.edu/TopLevel/Weather.htm

Week of September 22 to September 28, 2005

Readings Taken from Midnight to Midnight

 

Rainfall:

0.04 inch: September 23

0.12 inch: September 26

 

Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 91°F on September 23 to 76°F on September 24.

Lows Ranged from 67°F on September 23 to 49°F on September 28.

 

Soil Temperature:

76°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)

 

 

Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:  http://www.rec.udel.edu

 

Weekly Crop Update is Compiled and Edited By:

 

Emmalea Ernest

Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

University of Delaware

 

 

Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin.


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