Volume 13, Issue 3                                                                    April 8, 2005

Soybean Rust Update



There were no new reports of soybean rust this past week. More southern states are looking but none was found.


EPA amends Sec. 18s to allow maximum of three vs. two applications for soybean rust

U.S. soybean growers now will be able to use up to three applications of approved Section 18 fungicides for soybean rust in a season, an increase from the prior maximum of two such treatments.  The change by the EPA gives growers more flexibility, although they still must limit application of any one of the active ingredients in the emergency exemption products to no more than two.

From:  StopSoybeanRust.com


This addition has more importance for growers in the South that may have more disease pressure than we might have but it was felt that more flexibility was needed should three applications be necessary.


Most of the approved section 18 registrations for soybean rust allow for two applications of each product, but there is one exception that you should be made aware of -- Domark 230ME (tetraconazole) is limited to one application according to its section 18 label.


Bob Mulrooney





Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu


Sweet Corn

If you are planting varieties that are susceptible to Stewart’s Wilt, flea beetle control is extremely important.  At planting systemic insecticides or commercially applied systemic seed treatments should provide early season protection from flea beetle damage.  Commercially applied, systemic seed treatments available on sweet corn include Gaucho, Poncho and Cruiser.  Be sure to check the labels for rotational restrictions since they vary with each material.  The only at-planting, systemic,  soil insecticides labeled on sweet corn that provide protection from flea beetle damage are Counter and Furadan.  You can also control flea beetles with foliar insecticides.  When possible, fields should be scouted mid-day when beetles are active.  Field should be scouted starting at the spike stage and treatments applied once you find 5% of the plants infested with beetles.



Vegetable Crop Diseases- Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Fungicide addition

In addition to Actigard and Quadris for white rust control on spinach, Cabrio is also labeled on many leafy greens including spinach.  This use did not make the Commercial Vegetable Production Recs because it was labeled after the book went to print.  Cabrio and Quadris are both strobilurin fungicides (QoI’s) with the same mode of action, so do not make more than two sequential applications of both or either of these products.  The supplemental label for Cabrio is available on the web at: http://www.rec.udel.edu/suplabels05/ld62M010.pdf



Agronomic Crops


Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



The first small alfalfa weevil larvae can be found in fields in Kent and Sussex Counties.  Overwintered adults can lay eggs in stems any time temperatures are above 48 °F.  The weevil passes through four larval stages in approximately three weeks.  Although adults lay eggs in the fall and spring, larvae hatching from spring-laid eggs cause the most damage.  As a general guideline, treatment should be applied if damage is visible on 50 percent or more of the tips.  However, a more accurate way to time an application and try to avoid multiple insecticide applications would be to sample stems and determine the number of weevils per stem.  A minimum of 30 stems should be collected per field, placed top first in a bucket to dislodge larvae from the tips and then count the number of weevils per stem.  The following thresholds, based on the height of the alfalfa, should be used as a guideline to make treatment decisions: up to 11 inches tall - 0.7 per stem; 12 inches tall - 1.0 per stem; 13 - 15 inches tall - 1.5 per stem; 16 inches tall - 2.0 per stem and 17-18 inches tall - 2.5 per stem.  The following website from Penn State can also be used to watch alfalfa weevil development in the region.  This map provides information on the most advanced life stage that is predicted for a given geographic location in the state.




Field Corn

During the past week, we saw an increase in black cutworm moth trap catches.  These moths will be attracted to broadleaf weed covers and larvae are generally most active in later planted corn.  Although we can see leaf feeding early, we generally do not see cut plant damage until we reach 300 DD from peak catches.  Early cutting can also be caused by the variegated cutworm which we can find while sampling for grubs.  A treatment should be considered in 1-2 leaf stage corn if you find 3 percent cut plants or 10% leaf feeding.  For the most recent pheromone trap catches, see the table at the end of the newsletter or check our website at: http://www.udel.edu/IPM/traps/currentbcwtrap.html


As far as grubs and wireworms, we are generally finding higher population levels compared to last season.  Since wireworms remain in the soil for 3-5 years as larvae, we generally find economic levels in the same areas that experienced wireworm damage in past years.  Threshold levels of grubs have been found behind corn, full season soybean and double crop soybean stubble.


With the recent wet weather, we have also observed slugs in fields while sampling for grubs.  Both slug eggs and newly hatched juveniles can be found under surface trash.  In our region, most slugs pass through a single generation per year.  Although they generally overwinter in the egg stage, we can often find juveniles and adults all winter, especially if conditions are warm.  Since slugs may live 12 to 15 months and eggs are laid both in the early spring and fall, overlapping generations of adult and juvenile stages may be observed.  The following factors favor slug outbreaks: no-tillage field crop production practices; development of dense weed cover or addition of organic matter; mild winters which increase the number of overwintering stages, especially adult slugs; prolonged periods of favorable temperatures (63 to 68 degrees) combined with evenly distributed rainfall that maintains soil moisture at 75 percent saturation; high pH (6.3 - 6.7); and cool growing conditions which delay crop development and extend the period of susceptibility of the crop to slug injury.  You can identify fields with the potential for problems before planting by placing ten – one square foot boards or roofing shingles throughout a field and checking under them for slugs.  Another sampling method would be to use a covered pit to provide a humid, sheltered hiding place for slugs.  The pit should be four inches in diameter and six inches deep.  An aluminum foil-covered shingle or a board can be used as a cover to provide a cool refuge from the sun.  Slugs tend to congregate in large numbers in these shelters.  As a rule of thumb, you can expect problems in a field if you find one to five slugs per trap.



We are starting to hear reports of heavy populations of cereal rust mites in timothy in surrounding states.  If timothy appears curled and has a "rusted" appearance, you should suspect rust mites.  The only available control option is Sevin XLR under a 24C label.


Small Grains

We are starting to hear reports of an increase in cereal leaf beetle adult activity.  Although we do not time sprays for adult control, adult activity is a good indication that you should start scouting fields on a routine basis.  You should sample for eggs and small larvae by examining 10 tillers from 10 evenly spaced locations in the field.  Eggs and larvae may be found on leaves near the ground so careful examination is critical.  The treatment threshold is 25 or more eggs and/or small larvae per 100 tillers.  If you are using this threshold, it is important that you wait until at least 50% are in the larval stage (i.e. after 50% egg hatch) before treating.  If the above egg/small larvae threshold is not used, the threshold of 0.5 larvae per stem can be used as a guideline to make a treatment decision; however, fields must be scouted carefully and visited twice a week when populations are approaching threshold levels.



Agronomic Crop Diseases- Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist, bobmul@udel.edu


Wheat Powdery Mildew

All you need is a susceptible variety, some warm weather, and plenty of moisture and you can find powdery mildew on wheat at the present time.  Keep an eye out for powdery mildew now.  Fungicide applications should not be considered until wheat has reached Feekes GS 6 (jointing).  Tilt, Propimax EC and Stratego are suggested for control when and if fungicides are needed.  It is common for powdery mildew to infect the lowest leaves and remain there for some time.  The critical time to scout for powdery mildew is GS 8-10 (when the last leaf just appears until head emergence) to determine if fungicides are needed.


Grass-Based Pastures/Hay Fields Off to a Slow Start – Richard W. Taylor, Extension Agronomist, rtaylor@udel.edu


In the past week and a half, warmer temperatures have finally encouraged grasses and legumes to begin their spring growth, although many fields are probably several weeks behind what one would consider a normal schedule.  Producers who depend on pastures for spring feed or are trying to get a first grass cutting during early May’s typical dry period will need to apply nitrogen (N) as soon as practical to fields that are predominately grass.  Producers should take care not to cause undue compaction problems when applying the fertilizer since compaction effects could eliminate any potential yield increase the added fertilizer could contribute.  Soils in many areas are very wet at this time; and, with only a little growth on the pasture and hay fields, water movement out of the soil by way of transpiration by the crop will be minimal until more growth occurs.  Wet soil is more easily compacted when heavy equipment is driven across it than is dry or drier soil.  When soil conditions permit, apply 50 to 75 lbs N/A (a rate higher than normally recommended) to move your grass crop into high gear.


When grazing grass that has recently received a lot of N fertilizer, avoid grazing immediately following a few days of cool, cloudy weather since nitrates could have accumulated in the forage.  Allow a day or so of sunny weather to permit the crop to metabolize the nitrate into proteins, amino acids or other reduced N forms.  This caution also applies to hay harvest, especially when much of the season’s N is applied in one spring or early summer application.



US and World Supply and Demand Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Coarse Grain Analysis

Projected U.S. ending stocks of corn were increased by 160 million bushels from last month due to reduced domestic use and smaller exports, and are now projected at 2.215 billion bushels.  Feed and residual use was reduced by 75 million bushels. Food seed and industrial use were reduced 35 million bushels.  The export estimate was lowered 50 million bushels from last month. The projected price range for U.S. corn was lowered by 5 cents per bushel on both ends of the range and is now placed at $2.00 to $2.10 per bushel.


Projected global 04/05 marketing year coarse grain supply, trade, and use are down from last month with stocks showing an increase.  Global production is down fractionally and is now placed at 1,003 million tons, remaining at a record.


Oilseed Analysis

The estimate for U.S. soybean exports for the 04/05 marketing year was increased by 35 million bushels to a record 1.080 billion bushels.  The increase is attributed to reduced Southern Hemisphere supplies and stronger than expected exports to date.  China has taken 423 million bushels through March.  U.S. soybean ending stocks are now placed at 375 million bushels, 35 million bushels less than a month ago.  Price forecasts for U.S. soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal area all increased from last month.  The 04/05 U.S. season average soybean price is now projected at $5.25 to $5.55 per bushel, 20 cents higher on the low end and 10 cents higher on the high end of the range.  Soybean oil prices are now projected at 21.5 to 23.5 cents per pound, up 1/2 cent on both ends.  Soybean meal prices are forecast at $165 to $175 per short ton, up $5 on both ends.  This month's report is indicative that USDA over estimated the size of the '04 crop.


Global oilseed production for 04/05 is projected at 382.8 million metric tons (mmt), down 3.7 mmt from last month and remains record large.  Global soybean production was reduced 4.9 mmt to 219.2 mmt.  The Brazilian soybean crop is lowered 5 mmt to 54 mmt reflecting the effects of drought; however, the production level remains a record.


Global oilseed ending stocks for 04/05 are reduced 3.4 mmt to 59 mmt, due primarily to reductions for soybeans in South America.  Global soybean stocks are projected at 52.6 mmt, 15.2 mmt above the 03/04 marketing year.


Small Grain Analysis

Projected 04/05 ending stocks for U.S. wheat were reduced 12 million bushels from last month, attributed to a 17 million bushel increase in domestic use that is partially offset by a 5 million bushel increase in imports.  The price range for U.S. wheat is unchanged from last month at $3.35 to $3.45 per bushel.


Global wheat stocks are up slightly from last month.  Global production is down fractionally and remains a record.


Market Strategy

Commodity traders are likely to draw mixed signals from this report.  The domestic numbers for soybeans and wheat are price positive with global stocks levels likely to be viewed as adequate in the near term.


Near term price movement depends in large part to how the speculative and managed hedge funds decide to trade the report.  Corn futures are likely to trade lower due to the increase in U.S. ending stocks coupled with an increase in the estimate for world ending stocks.  Traders will now be looking ahead to planting progress, weather and crop development.




Farmers Urged to Discuss Soybean Rust Concerns with their Local Ag. Extension Experts and Crop Insurance Agent


WASHINGTON, March 24, 2005 –USDA’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) today encouraged insured producers concerned about the impact of Asian soybean rust to use good farming practices by seeking and following recommendations of agricultural experts to control soybean rust.  Further, RMA recommends the insured producer document the advice received and actions taken to combat this disease.


“We encourage all producers to talk to their crop insurance agent to understand and comply with the terms of their crop insurance policy to ensure they will be adequately prepared to meet the challenges presented by this disease,” said RMA Administrator Ross J. Davidson, Jr. “While the disease is an insured peril under the Federal crop insurance program, damage due to the insufficient or improper application of available disease control measures is not.”


Under the terms of the Common Crop Insurance Policy, a practice is considered a good farming practice if agricultural experts agree that the production method used will allow the crop to make normal progress toward maturity and produce at least the yield used to determine the production guarantee.


Failure to purchase and apply adequate control measures due to economic reasons is not an insurable cause of loss.  Producers must be knowledgeable of any pending outbreaks and the control methods recommended by local agricultural experts, such as extension agents and certified crop consultants, used in their area to combat the disease.


Appropriate treatment may vary from timing of application (pre- or post-discovery of the disease), frequency, and choice of chemical or other determining factors.  If crops become infected, RMA recommends that insured producers document the date of discovery of the disease, any recommendations received from agricultural experts, and actions taken regarding the application of appropriate control measures.


It is the approved insurance providers’ responsibility to verify that losses are unavoidable due to naturally occurring events.  That includes verifying producers followed good farming practices or that chemicals or application equipment were not available or natural events (e.g., excessive moisture) precluded access to the crop to timely apply the recommended treatments.


As with all crop insurance policies and plans of insurance, farmers must use good farming practices.  This insures that in the event of any naturally occurring disease outbreaks, such as soybean rust, producers will be eligible for an indemnity based on the full amount of the loss.  If good farming practices are not followed, production attributed to the failure to follow good farming practices is assessed, resulting in a reduction in the indemnity.


Insured producers should follow developments as to the identification and spread of Asian soybean rust disease and continue to stay informed and updated concerning appropriate treatments that may apply to their situation.  Producers can find the latest information on the spread of Asian soybean rust from local experts and from USDA’s website at www.usda.gov/soybeanrust.


Information about Asian soybean rust control measures may be obtained from local chemical dealers, crop consultants, and plant pathologists in agriculture departments of State governments, universities, and USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service who are familiar with the risks of exposure to this disease.


For more information regarding good farming practices and crop insurance protection against Asian soybean rust, please see the crop policies area on the RMA website at http://www.rma.usda.gov


James Callan (202) 720-8812

Shirley Pugh (202) 690-0437



Black Cutworm Pheromone Trap Catches
March 29 through April 4, 2005


# Moths


# Moths







Little Creek














Georgetown (UD REC)






























(1) Moth catches of 9 to 15 moths per 7-day period have been associated with a moderate to high potential for cutworm outbreaks.

(2) Moth catches of 5 per night for at least 2 consecutive nights have also indicated a high potential for problems.

(3) You can expect to see cutting activity around 300 degree-days, base of 50 °F from peak moth activity.




Upcoming Meetings


Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops 2005 Available


You may obtain copies of the Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops 2005 from the Research and Education Center by mail.  The cost is $15 (includes shipping and handling).  Please use the form at the end of this issue of WCU when you order. 


You may also stop by the research station and purchase a copy for $13.



Spring Crops Twilight Tour

May 25, 2005     6:30 p.m.

Wye Research and Education Center


More information coming soon…



Equine Hoof Care Workshop

April 23, 2005     9:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon

Harrington Raceway


This will be the first in a series of workshops focusing on the horse’s hoof.  Laura Florence, Resident Farrier from University of Pennsylvania Veterinary School’s New Bolton Center will lead the workshop.


Space is limited and registration is $5.


Contact Susan Truehart Garey (302) 730-4000 truehart@udel.edu


Friends of Agriculture Breakfast

“Current Activities in the Delaware Department of Agriculture”

April 29, 2005     7:15 a.m.

Modern Maturity Center, 1121 Forrest Ave., Dover


Delaware Secretary of Agriculture Michael Scuse will give an update on the current activities of the Delaware Department of Agriculture.


Registration is $10 per person.


Contact Susan Davis (302) 831-6758 shurt@udel.edu



Pesticide Safety Training and Testing for Pesticide Applicators Certification

June 28 & 29, 2005

Kent County Extension Office


June 28 is training -- 8:30 am - 4:30 pm.  Training continues the morning of June 29, from 8:30 a.m. - noon.  The exam starts at 1:00 pm on June 29.


Be sure to bring your Workbook! You don't have to register for training, but you must register for the exam.  Call DDA (302-698-4500) one week in advance to register for the exam.  All exams are closed book!!  Bring your calculator for the calibration questions.



2005 Wye Strawberry Twilight Meeting

May 25, 2005     6:00 - 8:00 p.m.


-2004-05 research plots


-Effect of Strawberry tip plugging date on Spring yields with and without Fall applied row covers in the field and in a high tunnel.


-Variety trial with Bish, Treasure, Festival and Gem.

USDA cooperative research on "conditioned" strawberry plugs for Fall and Spring harvest.


-Greenhouse-gutter production system.


-USDA Fruit Pathologist Bill Turechek will discuss strawberry diseases and current control measures.

USDA and University small fruit specialist will also be on hand.



Virginia Small Grains Association Field Day

May 24, 2005     9:30 a.m.

Farm of Lanier Easley, Pittsylvania County, VA


Field plots will feature ryegrass/weed control strategies, insecticide seed treatments, evaluations of hulless barley and bread wheat seeding rates and management, and variety demos from Southern States, Pioneer, Hubner, Vigoro/Royster Clark, VCIA, U of Maryland, Coker, and USG.


Spring fungicide demonstrations and strips with nitrogen and nitrogen+sulfur as a topdress are planned.  Results will be shown as part of the tours.  There will also be display/demonstration of the new Greenseeker technology.  The Greenseeker applies a variable rate nitrogen application based on the needs of each plant.  The tentative program includes speakers from the Altria/Shared Solutions Program and Don Mennel with Mennel Milling.


Lunch will be served by Bill Ellis BBQ.


Exhibitor and sponsorship opportunities are available. For further information, please contact:

Ellen Davis, Executive Director of Virginia Small Grains Association, (804) 843-4455

Wade Thomason, Extension Grain Specialist,

(540) 231-2988.




From Rt. 57 about 8.5 miles west of Chatham, VA (Town of Rondo)


Turn South on Rt. 750, Strawberry Rd. Go approximately 1.25 miles


Turn Left onto Rt. 833, parking and field plots are on the right, approximately 0.8 miles from the turn.



Weather Summary



Week of April 1 to April 7, 2005


0.04 inches: April 1

1.59 inches: April 2

0.04 inches: April 3

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.


Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 80°F on April 6 to 49°F on April 3.

Lows Ranged from 60°F on April 7 to 35°F on April 5.


Soil Temperature:

56°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:  http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:


Emmalea Ernest

Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

University of Delaware





Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin.





Order Form for Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops 2005


Please send me ____ copy(ies) of the Pest Management Recommendations for Field Crops 2005.  Cost is $15 per book (including shipping and handling.) 


Make checks payable to “University of Delaware


Amount enclosed $________ Check # __________




Address: ___________________________________________________________________________________


City: ___________________________________  State: _____________  Zip: __________________________


Telephone: ________________________________________________________________________________

Return this form to:  Sharon Webb, University of Delaware Research & Education Center,

        16483 County Seat Highway, Georgetown, DE  19947


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