Volume 13, Issue 4                                                                    April 15, 2005

Soybean Rust Update





Asian soybean rust was found in a third county in Florida this week.  The newest county is Marion County.  This is north and east of the other two counties previously identified.  This most recent find was on kudzu and was confirmed morphologically by the FL Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.  For more info check the USDA SBR website http://www.sbrusa.net/ or go to our Soybean Rust Resources site for links to many sites: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/Information/pdc/soybeanrustResources.htm


Bob Mulrooney









Pea and Sweet Corn Planting Progress –    Ed Kee, Extension Vegetable Specialist; kee@udel.edu


Planting progress for Delmarva’s processing pea crop is nearly 40% complete.  Most firms have reached 1/3 of their planting intentions, with one firm at 50%.  Cool weather and the wet first weekend of April have delayed progress.  However, with current dry conditions, and expected warming, significant progress is expected over the next seven days.  Between 8,000 and 9,000 acres of peas are expected to be planted on Delmarva.


Planting for processing sweet corn has just begun.  Nearly 14,000 acres of processing sweet corn are expected to be planted on Delmarva this season.  Early plantings of fresh market sweet corn, some under plastic, have been made since late March.



Vegetable Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Be sure to watch for imported cabbageworm and diamondback (DBM) larvae in early planted fields.  Once DBM eggs hatch, young larvae will first mine between the upper and lower leaf surfaces before moving to the heart of the plants.  Treatments should be applied when 5% of the plants are infested with larvae and before larvae move to the heart of the plants.  If both insects are present, the Bts, Avaunt, Spintor and Proclaim have provided control. In general, the best control will occur when applications are made to small “worms”.  Be sure to rotate between insecticide classes to avoid the development of resistance.


Cucurbit Crops

Since cucumber beetles vector bacterial wilt, early control is very important in highly susceptible cucurbits including muskmelons, slicing cucumbers and a number of pumpkin varieties.  When available, selection of resistant varieties is an effective control strategy.  Watermelons are considered not susceptible to bacterial wilt.  However, heavy beetle populations can cause early stand reductions.  Early control may also be needed to reduce population levels that cause rind damage later in the season.  In addition to foliar insecticides, the use of insecticides applied at planting or through the drip irrigation has provided effective early season cucumber beetle control.  Furadan 4F is only labeled as an at-planting application under a 24C label for cucumber beetle control.  Admire and Platinum are labeled at-planting and can also be applied through the drip irrigation.  Please see labels for rates, use directions and precautions.

Furadan 24C label - http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld478015.pdf

Admire 2F label - http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld68H042.pdf

Platinum label - http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld55K011.pdf

Platinum 2ee label for early season cucumber beetle control - http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld55K015.pdf



Callisto Labeled for Sweet Corn Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


Syngenta has received a label for Callisto applications to sweet corn.  Callisto can be tankmixed with a soil-applied herbicide such as Bicep or Dual, or used postemergence.  Postemergence applications of Callisto must not include nitrogen or AMS due to increased risk of injury.  Callisto used postemergence should be applied with a non-ionic surfactant under most conditions (rather than crop oil) to reduce the risk of injury.  Some sweet corn hybrids have shown injury to Callisto, most notably Argent.  Most injury is due to a whitening of the leaf tissue but the green tissue often reappears in a few days.  The Callisto label prohibits postemergence application to sweet corn that has been treated with an organo-phosphate insecticide such as Counter or Lorsban.  Be sure to read the label prior to application.


New NJ Vegetable Pathologist- Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu


Welcome to Dr. Andy Wyenandt.  Andy is the new Rutgers Extension Vegetable Plant Pathology Specialist at the South Jersey Research and Extension Center near Centerton, NJ.  Andy got his PhD from Ohio State University where he worked on pumpkin fruit rots.  He has been in the position since January and I am glad he is aboard and looking forward to working together in the years to come.  Andy replaces Steve Johnston who died two years ago on April 16.


Raptor Has Label for Peas, Snap Beans, and Lima Beans Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


BASF has federal labels for Raptor as postemergence applications on peas, snap beans and lima beans.  The rate for peas is 3 oz/A while snap bean and lima bean rate is 4 oz/A.  Addition of Basagran at 6 to 16 oz is required by label for snap and limas to reduce the risk of injury.  A non-ionic surfactant is required for postemergence applications.  The addition of nitrogen increases the risk of crop injury.  Do not apply during flowering.  Applications to weeds 3 inches or less will be most effective.



Agronomic Crops


Agronomic Crop Insects - Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu



Small alfalfa weevil larvae and pin hole feeding can be found in fields in all 3 counties. Be sure to sample fields on a weekly basis for larvae.  The following Penn State website can also be used to track development



Field Corn

We continue to see an increase in the number of black cutworm moths caught in pheromone traps (see table on last page of report or check our website at http://www.udel.edu/IPM/traps/currentbcwtrap.html.)  Trap catches have increased in the Bridgeville, Delmar, Frederica, Laurel, Leipsic, Little Creek and Magnolia areas.



Very low levels of cereal leaf beetle egg laying have been found in isolated areas.  As soon as temperatures increase, you should watch for an increase in egg laying and hatch.  Populations can increase quickly so continue to scout fields on a weekly basis. 



Agronomic Crop Diseases- Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu


Powdery mildew was seen again this week on wheat in Sussex County.  Most of the infections are on old leaves, so it was not bad.  Remember that spraying for powdery mildew control should be delayed until at least the flag leaf emerges unless mildew is rampant.  Now that most wheat is jointed (Growth stage 6) it should be scouted regularly for powdery mildew.  As always, planting the best yielding resistant varieties is the best control strategy, but if mildew threatens to rob yields later, fungicide control is the best control measure.

Soybean Cyst Nematode

It is still not too late to check for soybean cyst nematode. Soil test bags with the submission form can be purchased at the Extension offices. If you have a fax machine and need results quickly, test results can be sent via FAX if you provide the number on the Nematode Assay Information Sheet.



Weed Control in Pastures and Alfalfa Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


If you have not done so yet, be sure to examine your hay, pasture, and alfalfa fields for weed infestations.  Earlier applications are much more effective than later as weeds get larger and start to produce seeds.  For grass hayfields or pastures, weed control options include dicamba (Banvel or Clarity), 2,4-D, Overdrive, Crossbow, or Cimarron.  Cimarron and Crossbow provide residual control, while the other products do not.


For pure alfalfa fields, Buctril, 2,4-DB, Pursuit or Raptor are labeled.  Pursuit and Raptor will provide both postemergence control as well as residual control.  For mixed stands of legumes and grasses, Pursuit is an option. 


Be sure to read the label and follow all precautions concerning grazing and haying restrictions as well as overseeding and re-seeding restrictions.



Soybean Herbicide Update Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu


There have been some changes in soybean herbicides that will impact our area for 2005. 


Canopy and Canopy XL, the soil-applied herbicides, will not be available any longer.  Dupont has decided not to market these products. 


Synchrony XP (DuPont) will be available for soil-applied residual control.  Synchrony XP contains chlorimuron (active ingredient in Classic) and thifensulfuron (Harmony GT).  Synchrony XP is the same ratio as Synchrony STS, but at lower percentage active ingredient.  That means Synchrony XP is used at higher product rates compared to Synchrony STS.  The chlorimuron was in both Canopy and Canopy XL and was useful for managing glyphosate-resistant horseweed.  University of Delaware research shows 2 oz/A of Synchrony XP will control horseweed once it begins to bolt, and Synchrony XP should also be tankmixed with 2,4-D to reduce the risk of developing horseweed biotypes resistant to ALS herbicides (Synchrony, Amplify and FirstRate are all ALS herbicides).


Valor has had an important label change.  It can be used with a chloroacetamide herbicide (Dual, Lasso, Outlook) if applied 2 wks before planting.  Valor is available as a co-package mixture with FirstRate called Gangster that provides quite broad spectrum control for broadleaves – not quite as long of residual as Canopy XL.  Beware that a “splashing” rainfall as soybeans emerge can cause crop injury and applications at least 2 weeks prior to planting reduces the risk of injury.


Sequence is a pre-packaged mixture of glyphosate (K-salt) plus Dual Magnum for use early postemergence for Roundup Ready soybeans.  This mixture does not need additional surfactants.  A rate of 2.5 pts will provide 34 oz of glyphosate (4 lbs ai/gallon formulation) and 1 pt of Dual Magnum.



Grain Marketing Highlights - Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu


Executive Summary
There is nothing new to report in the grain and oilseed markets this week.  USDA's recent world and domestic Supply and Demand report was received as expected by commodity traders.  Planting progress throughout the Corn Belt is favorable.  Soil moisture for planting and germination in the U.S. is favorable.  The weather is also favorable.  Harvest progress in Brazil and Argentina is 65% and 35% complete, respectively.  Dec '05 corn futures are currently trading at $2.30/bushel; Nov '05 soybeans at $6.09/bushel; and July '05 wheat futures are currently at $3.18/bushel.
 New crop basis bids are currently 10 over for corn; 15 under for soybeans; and 15 under for wheat.  Advancing new crop sales is not recommended at this time.




General Info


Pesticide Briefs Available OnlineSusan Whitney King; swhitney@udel.edu

For details on the following articles, see the latest Pesticide Briefs posted online at: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/information/pesticide/pesticide_briefs/briefs.htm

DCPA; Notice of Receipt of Request to Amend to Terminate Uses of Certain Pesticide Registrations – Request would terminate use of DCPA (dacthal) on various crops including: alfalfa, beans, beets, cucumber, eggplant, garlic, kale, peas, pepper, potatoes, squash (including pumpkin), and sweet potatoes.


Thiram Reregistraion Eligibility Decision - EPA is proposing restrictions to the fungicide Thiram (Thylate).


 Azinphos-Methyl; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel or to Amend to Terminate Uses of Certain Pesticide Registrations - The requests would terminate azinphos-methyl use in or on caneberries, cotton, cranberries, nectarines, peaches, potatoes, and southern pine seed orchards.  The sale, distribution, and use of existing stocks of these products in the United States are permitted until August 31, 2005.



Christmas Tree Growers - Disease Alert - Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu


Alert. Rhabdocline needlecast has been identified in Kent County on Douglas fir.  Christmas tree growers statewide with Douglas fir should check their plantings now.  This is the only needlecast or needle spotting disease that we see on Douglas fir.  Heavy infections and subsequent needle loss can make trees unfit for sale for several years.  Look for reddish brown needles on last year's growth.  The undersides of the needles will have long pustules that will split to spread the spores of the fungus to the new growth.  Protect the new growth with applications of chlorothalonil (Bravo, Daconil).


Rhabdocline is a fungus disease caused by the fungus Rhabdocline pseudotsugae and R. weirii.  Infection occurs from late April through early June.  Wet needles and cool temperatures favor infection (53-59°F is ideal).  Nothing can be done for current infected needles.  The management suggestions below are aimed at protecting the new needles. After spore dispersal the old infected needles will drop.



1. Plan plant placement and weed control to insure good air circulation to reduce humidity and period of needle wetness.  2. Three or four applications of chlorothalonil: 1st as first buds break, 2nd one week later, 3rd three weeks after first buds break, 4th if spring is prolonged by cool weather, 6 weeks after first bud break.



Rhabocline needlecast on lower leaf surface         Rhabocline needlecast on upper leaf surface

                                                                   T. Olsen                                                                       T. Olsen



Later picture of Rhabocline needlecast, showing lower leaf surface infections splitting to release spores

                                                                                                                                                         B. Mulrooney




Black Cutworm Pheromone Trap Catches

April 5 through April 11, 2005


# Moths


# Moths







Little Creek














Georgetown (UD REC)






























(1) Moth catches of 9 to 15 moths per 7-day period have been associated with a moderate to high potential for cutworm outbreaks.

(2) Moth catches of 5 per night for at least 2 consecutive nights have also indicated a high potential for problems.

(3) You can expect to see cutting activity around 300 degree-days, base of 50 degree F from peak moth activity.



Upcoming Meetings


Spring Crops Twilight Tour

May 25, 2005     6:30 p.m.

Wye Research and Education Center


-Visit the wheat and barley plots to compare plant growth type, maturity and disease resistance.


-Update on current insect, weed and disease pressure, predictions for the near future, and management techniques for integrated pest management.


-Discussion of any current crop management issues


-CCA credits


Refreshments/dessert will be available.

Registration is not required.

Contact: Mark Sultenfuss (410) 827-7388 or

Debby Dant (410) 827-8056



Equine Hoof Care Workshop

April 23, 2005     9:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon

Harrington Raceway


This will be the first in a series of workshops focusing on the horse’s hoof.  Laura Florence, Resident Farrier from University of Pennsylvania Veterinary School’s New Bolton Center will lead the workshop.


Space is limited and registration is $5.


Contact Susan Truehart Garey (302) 730-4000 truehart@udel.edu



Friends of Agriculture Breakfast

“Current Activities in the Delaware Department of Agriculture”

April 29, 2005     7:15 a.m.

Modern Maturity Center, 1121 Forrest Ave., Dover


Delaware Secretary of Agriculture Michael Scuse will give an update on the current activities of the Delaware Department of Agriculture.


Registration is $10 per person.


Contact Susan Davis (302) 831-6758 shurt@udel.edu



Pesticide Safety Training and Testing for Pesticide Applicators Certification

June 28 & 29, 2005

Kent County Extension Office


June 28 is training -- 8:30 am - 4:30 pm.  Training continues the morning of June 29, from 8:30 a.m. - noon.  The exam starts at 1:00 pm on June 29.


Be sure to bring your Workbook! You don't have to register for training, but you must register for the exam.  Call DDA (302-698-4500) one week in advance to register for the exam.  All exams are closed book!!  Bring your calculator for the calibration questions.



2005 Wye Strawberry Twilight Meeting

May 25, 2005     6:00 - 8:00 p.m.


-2004-05 research plots


-Effect of Strawberry tip plugging date on Spring yields with and without Fall applied row covers in the field and in a high tunnel.


-Variety trial with Bish, Treasure, Festival and Gem.

USDA cooperative research on "conditioned" strawberry plugs for Fall and Spring harvest.


-Greenhouse-gutter production system.


-USDA Fruit Pathologist Bill Turechek will discuss strawberry diseases and current control measures.

USDA and University small fruit specialists will also be on hand.


Refreshments/dessert will be available.

Registration is not required.

Contact: Mike Newell (410) 827-7388 or

Debby Dant (410) 827-8056



Virginia Small Grains Association Field Day

May 24, 2005     9:30 a.m.

Farm of Lanier Easley, Pittsylvania County, VA


Field plots will feature ryegrass/weed control strategies, insecticide seed treatments, evaluations of hulless barley and bread wheat seeding rates and management, and variety demos from Southern States, Pioneer, Hubner, Vigoro/Royster Clark, VCIA, U of Maryland, Coker, and USG.


Spring fungicide demonstrations and strips with nitrogen and nitrogen+sulfur as a topdress are planned.  Results will be shown as part of the tours.  There will also be display/demonstration of the new Greenseeker technology.  The Greenseeker applies a variable rate nitrogen application based on the needs of each plant.  The tentative program includes speakers from the Altria/Shared Solutions Program and Don Mennel with Mennel Milling.


Lunch will be served by Bill Ellis BBQ.


Exhibitor and sponsorship opportunities are available. For further information, please contact:

Ellen Davis, Executive Director of Virginia Small Grains Association, (804) 843-4455

Wade Thomason, Extension Grain Specialist,

(540) 231-2988.




From Rt. 57 about 8.5 miles west of Chatham, VA (Town of Rondo)


Turn South on Rt. 750, Strawberry Rd. Go approximately 1.25 miles


Turn Left onto Rt. 833, parking and field plots are on the right, approximately 0.8 miles from the turn.




Weather Summary



Week of April 8 to April 13, 2005


0.11 inches: April 8

Readings taken for the previous 24 hours at 8 a.m.


Air Temperature:

Highs Ranged from 72°F on April 10 to 54°F on April 11.

Lows Ranged from 46°F on April 8 to 31°F on April 10.


Soil Temperature:

57°F average.

(Soil temperature taken at a 2 inch depth, under sod)


Web Address for the U of D Research & Education Center:  http://www.rec.udel.edu


Compiled and Edited By:


Emmalea Ernest

Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops

University of Delaware





Cooperative Extension Education in Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Delaware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin.



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